“Business as usual" is no longer a viable way of running a 21st Century university. The impact of globalization, the growing complexity of the university mission and the still uncertain impact of the 2008/09 global recession all point towards a future characterised by uncertainty. Against the pessimistic scenario, however, we can discern some good reasons for optimism in regards to the university re-inventing itself for the new millennium. This book demonstrates the need for the modern university to move beyond narrow disciplinary boundaries and to become more socially embedded in order to succeed in the current competitive climate. The universities are uniquely positioned to bridge the needs of the citizen and the emerging technologies in a democratic and participatory manner. Science and technology is leaping ahead at an unprecedented pace due to globalisation, but often social needs and human ethics are not to the fore. While universities cannot retreat to an ‘ivory tower’ which no longer exists, they can engage with technology and the market to help make science serve social need and advance democratic citizenship in a most turbulent global era.