The Kurdistan Region of Iraq has been massively contaminated by landmines and unexploded ordnance. This will continue to be a major obstacle for development and economic growth, particularly in the rural border communities. The mines were used systematically by the central Baathist government in its efforts to de-populate the Kurdistan Region and to weaken the Kurds’ demands for regional self-determination. This work investigates the magnitude of the landmine problem in the region, and the landmine action activities undertaken to rehabilitate, reconstruct, and develop the region. In addition to that, this work emphasizes the social, health, educational and economic impacts of landmines, as well as the legal consequences. In order to achieve the abovementioned objectives, this work is divided into fifteen chapters. After providing an introduction and background to the landmine problem, the authors discuss the scope of the problem, both in the Kurdistan Region and internationally. The methods of dealing with mines and their consequences are reviewed. The issues of landmine action, impact surveys, factors influencing the survey process, and mine actions activities are also discussed. A comprehensive review of the outcome of the problem of landmines in the Kurdistan Region has been conducted. The nature and characteristics of the problems faced by Kurds are discussed in more detailed form by looking at case studies. Here the economic, social, and health impacts of landmines in the region are assessed. The issues of the human, security, and political impacts of landmines are further addressed, followed by an assessment of mine action resources and its progress, education, and various preventive measures. Finally, a number of policy recommendations are provided to prevent the use of mines in the future, and to take legal action against landmine users for clearance, rehabilitation, and compensation issues.