• Geography & the Environment
      May 2016

      British Urban Trees

      A Social and Cultural History c.1800–1914

      by Paul A. Elliott

      GREENING THE VICTORIAN URBAN WORLD Whether we consider the great London Planes which are now the largest trees in many British urban streets, the exotic ornamentals from across the globe flourishing in numerous private gardens, the stately trees of public parks and squares or the dense colourful foliage of suburbia, the impact of trees and arboriculture upon modern towns and their ecosystems is clear. From the formal walks and squares of the Georgian town to Victorian tree-lined boulevards and commemorative oaks, trees are the organic statuary of modern urban society, providing continuity yet constantly changing through the day and over the seasons. Interfacing between humans and nature, connecting the continents and reaching back and forward through time to past and future generations, they have come to define urbanity while simultaneously evoking nature and the countryside. This book is the first major study of British urban arboriculture between 1800 and 1914 and draws upon fresh approaches in geographical, urban and environmental history. It makes a major contribution to our understanding of where, how and why trees grew in British towns in the period, the social and cultural impact of these and the attitudes taken towards them.

    • The Arts
      June 2019

      China's New Architecture

      Return to the context

      by Christian Schittich

    • Geography & the Environment
      February 2018

      Recycling & Waste World

      by Various

      Every month, RWW champions its reader through its independent insight, informed opinion and thought leadership content. RWW’s readers are the senior decision-makers from commercial organisations, national and local government, material processors and SMEs, who each play a vital role in moving the UK closer towards a circular economy. RWW’s essential news, analysis and stimulating debate, inspire and connects this community.

    • Humanities & Social Sciences
      January 2018

      Reconstructing modernity

      Space, power and governance in mid-twentieth century British cities

      by James Greenhalgh

      Reconstructing modernity assesses the character of approaches to rebuilding British cities during the decades after the Second World War. It explores the strategies of spatial governance that sought to restructure society and looks at the cast of characters who shaped these processes. It challenges traditional views of urban modernism and sheds new light on the importance of the immediate post-war for the trajectory of planned urban renewal in twentieth century. It examines plans and policies designed to produce and govern lived spaces- shopping centers, housing estates, parks, schools and homes - and shows how and why they succeeded or failed. It demonstrates how the material space of the city and how people used and experienced it was crucial in understanding historical change in urban contexts. The book is aimed at those interested in urban modernism, the use of space in town planning, the urban histories of post-war Britain and of social housing.

    • Rural planning
      July 2007

      Decentralization and the Social Economics of Development

      Lessons from Kenya

      by Edited by Christopher B Barrett, Andrew G Mude, John M Omiti

      There has been broad agreement in recent years that decentralization is key in achieving democracy at local level. Examining the successes, failures, possibilities and limitations of efforts across rural Kenya, this book analyses the socioeconomic and institutional prerequisites for successful decentralization, and the role of community groups and producer organizations in reducing poverty and promoting empowerment.Original empirical studies explore the fundamental elements of coherent, inclusive and ultimately effective decentralization, and how these can be applied to efforts across the African continent and beyond.

    • Rural planning
      February 2007

      Global Supply Chains, Standards and the Poor

      How the Globalization of Food Systems and Standards Affects Rural Development and Poverty

      by Edited by Johan F M Swinnen,

      Using original research from Asia, Africa, Europe and Latin America this book reviews the recent restructuring of the global agri-food industry and the dramatic rise of global retail chains in developing and transition countries. It focuses on the private standards and requirements imposed by multinational companies investing in these countries and the resulting changes to existing supply chains. It also examines the impact of these changes on local producers, particularly poor farmers, and considers the long-term policy implications in terms of growth and poverty.

    • Rural planning
      September 2005

      Rural Change and Sustainability

      Agriculture, the Environment and Communities

      by Stephen J Essex, Andrew W Gilg, John Smithers, Randall Wilson. Edited by Richard Yarwood.

      This book draws upon selected, revised and edited papers from a conference of rural geographers from the UK, USA and Canada, held at the Universities of Plymouth and Exeter. It focuses on rural regions, which are facing conflicting demands, pressures and challenges, which themselves have far-reaching implications for rural space and society. Themes that occur throughout the book include agricultural change, environmental issues, rural communities, governance and globalization, and rural responses to these.

    • Rural planning
      January 1992

      Contemporary Rural Systems in Transition Volume 2

      Economy and Society

      by Ian R Bowler, Christopher Bryant, Duane Nellis

      This is volume two of this series on contemporary rural systems in transition

    • Transport planning & policy
      January 1987

      Infrastructure for the 21st Century

      Framework for a Research Agenda

      by Committee on Infrastructure Innovation, National Research Council

    • Transport planning & policy
      January 1992

      Automotive Fuel Economy

      How Far Can We Go?

      by Committee on Fuel Economy of Automobiles and Light Trucks, National Research Council

      This volume presents realistic estimates for the level of fuel economy that is achievable in the next decade for cars and light trucks made in the United States and Canada. A source of objective and comprehensive information on the topic, this book takes into account real-world factors such as the financial conditions in the automotive industry, costs and benefits to consumers, and marketability of high-efficiency vehicles. The committee is composed of experts from the fields of science, technology, finance, and regulation and offers practical evaluations of technological improvements that could contribute to increased fuel efficiency. The volume also examines potential barriers to improvement, such as high production costs, regulations on safety and emissions, and consumer preferences. This practical book is of considerable interest to car and light truck manufacturers, policymakers, federal and state agencies, and the public.

    • Transport planning & policy
      January 1997

      Flight to the Future

      Human Factors in Air Traffic Control

      by Christopher D. Wickens, Anne S. Mavor, and James P. McGee, Editors; Panel on Human Factors in Air Traffic Control Automation, National Research Council

      Despite the strong safety record of the national airspace system, serious disruptions occasionally occur, often as a result of outdated or failed equipment. Under these circumstances, safety relies on the skills of the controllers and pilots and on reducing the number of aircraft in the air. The current and growing pressures to increase the capacity to handle a greater number of flights has led to a call for faster and more powerful equipment and for equipment that can take over some of the tasks now being performed by humans. Increasing the role of automation in air traffic control may provide a more efficient system, but will human controllers be able to effectively take over when problems occur? This comprehensive volume provides a baseline of knowledge about the capabilities and limitations of humans relative to the variety of functions performed in air traffic control. It focuses on balancing safety with the expeditious flow of air traffic, identifying lessons from past air accidents. The book discusses The function of the national airspace system and the procedures for hiring, training, and evaluating controllers. Decisionmaking, memory, alertness, vigilance, sleep patterns during shift work, communication, and other factors in controllers' performance. Research on automation and human factors in air traffic control and incorporation of findings into the system. The Federal Aviation Administration's management of the air traffic control system and its dual mandate to promote safety and the development of air commerce. This book also offers recommendations for evaluation the human role in automated air traffic control systems and for managing the introduction of automation into current facilities and operations. It will be of interest to anyone concerned about air safety--policymakers, regulators, air traffic managers and controllers, airline officials, and passenger advocates.

    • Transport planning & policy
      April 1997

      Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles

      Third Report

      by Standing Committee to Review the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles, National Research Council

      This book examines the state of development and research progress of technologies being considered for a new generation of vehicles that could achieve up to three times the fuel economy of comparable 1994 family sedans. It addresses compression ignition direct injection engines, fuel cells, gas turbines, batteries, flywheels, ultracapacitors, and power electronics being developed by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles--a cooperative research and development program between the U.S. government and the U.S. Council for Automotive Research. The book assesses the relevance of the ongoing research to PNGV's goals and schedule and addresses several broad program issues such as government efforts to anticipate infrastructure issues, the leverage of foreign technology, and the program's adequacy and balance.

    • Transport planning & policy
      April 1998

      Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles

      Fourth Report

      by Standing Committee to Review the Research Programs of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles, National Research Council

      This book examines the state of development and research progress of technologies being considered for a new generation of vehicles that could achieve up to three times the fuel economy of comparable 1994 family sedans. It addresses advanced automotive technologies including engines, fuel cells, batteries, flywheels, power electronics, and lightweight materials being developed by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles--a cooperative research and development program between the U.S. government and the U.S. Council for Automotive Research. The book assesses the relevance of the ongoing research to PNGV's goals and schedule, the program's adequacy and balance, and addresses several issues such as the benefits of hybrid versus nonhybrid vehicles and the importance of the sports utility vehicle market.

    • Transport planning & policy
      September 2003

      Energy and Transportation

      Challenges for the Chemical Sciences in the 21st Century

      by Organizing Committee for the Workshop on Energy and Transportation, Committee on Challenges for the Chemical Sciences in the 21st Century, National Research Council

      This book, also based on a workshop, assesses the current state of chemistry and chemical engineering at the interface with novel and existing forms of energy and transportation systems. The book also identifies challenges for the chemical sciences in helping to meet the increased demand for more energy, and opportunities for research in energy technologies and in the development of transportation vehicles.

    • Transport planning & policy
      October 2005

      Review of the Research Program of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership

      First Report

      by Committee on Review of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Research Program, National Research Council

      The FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership is a collaborative effort among the Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Council for Automotive Research (USCAR), and five major energy companies to manage research that will enable the vision of "a clean and sustainable transportation energy future." It envisions a transition from more efficient internal combustion engines (ICEs), to advanced ICE hybrid electric vehicles, to enabling a private-sector decision by 2015 on hydrogen-fueled vehicle development. This report, which builds on an earlier NRC report, The Hydrogen Economy: Opportunities, Costs, Barriers, and R&D Needs, presents an evaluation of the Partnership’s research efforts on hydrogen-fueled transportation systems, and provides findings and recommendations about technical directions, strategies, funding, and management.

    • Transport planning & policy
      January 2006

      Managing Construction and Infrastructure in the 21st Century Bureau of Reclamation

      by Committee on Organizing to Manage Construction and Infrastructure in the 21st Century Bureau of Reclamation, National Research Council

      In the more than 100 years since its formation, the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation of the Department of Interior (DOI), through its construction program, has brought water, electric power, and recreation facilities to millions of people in the Western United States. With major water and power systems in place, the Bureau’s attention has now turned to operation, maintenance, repair, and modernization of those facilities in an environmentally and economically sound manner. To help with this effort, DOI asked the NRC to advise the Bureau on “appropriate organizational, management, and resource configurations to meet its construction, maintenance, and infrastructure requirements for its missions of the 21st century.†This report presents an assessment of the requirements facing the Bureau in the 21st century, an analysis of good practices and techniques for addressing those challenges, and a review of workforce and human resource needs. The report also provides alternative scenarios that describe possible future organizations for infrastructure management.

    • Transport planning & policy
      February 2007

      Polar Icebreakers in a Changing World

      An Assessment of U.S. Needs

      by Committee on the Assessment of U.S. Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Roles and Future Needs, National Research Council

      The United States has enduring national and strategic interests in the polar regions, including citizens living above the Arctic circle and three year-round scientific stations in the Antarctic. Polar icebreaking ships are needed to access both regions. Over the past several decades, the U.S. government has supported a fleet of four icebreakers -- three multi-mission U.S. Coast Guard ships (the POLAR SEA, POLAR STAR, and HEALY) and the National Science Foundation’s PALMER, which is dedicated solely to scientific research. Today, the POLAR STAR and the POLAR SEA are at the end of their service lives, and a lack of funds and no plans for an extension of the program has put U.S. icebreaking capability at risk. This report concludes that the United States should continue to support its interests in the Arctic and Antarctic for multiple missions, including maintaining leadership in polar science. The report recommends that the United States immediately program, budget, design, and construct two new polar icebreakers to be operated by the U.S. Coast Guard. The POLAR SEA should remain mission capable and the POLAR STAR should remain available for reactivation until the new polar icebreakers enter service. The U.S. Coast Guard should be provided sufficient operations and maintenance budget to support an increased, regular, and influential presence in the Arctic, with support from other agencies. The report also calls for a Presidential Decision Directive to clearly align agency responsibilities and budgetary authorities.

    • Transport planning & policy
      September 2008

      Review of the 21st Century Truck Partnership

      by Committee to Review the 21st Century Truck Partnership, National Research Council

      The 21st Century Truck Partnership (21CTP), a cooperative research and development partnership formed by four federal agencies with 15 industrial partners, was launched in the year 2000 with high hopes that it would dramatically advance the technologies used in trucks and buses, yielding a cleaner, safer, more efficient generation of vehicles. Review of the 21st Century Truck Partnership critically examines and comments on the overall adequacy and balance of the 21CTP. The book reviews how well the program has accomplished its goals, evaluates progress in the program, and makes recommendations to improve the likelihood of the Partnership meeting its goals. Key recommendations of the book include that the 21CTP should be continued, but the future program should be revised and better balanced. A clearer goal setting strategy should be developed, and the goals should be clearly stated in measurable engineering terms and reviewed periodically so as to be based on the available funds.

    • Transport planning & policy
      January 2010

      A Transportation Research Program for Mitigating and Adapting to Climate Change and Conserving Energy

      Special Report 299

      by Committee for Study on Transportation Research Programs to Address Energy and Climate Change, Transportation Research Board 2009 Executive Committee

      In reviewing proposals for transportation research programs as part of reauthorizing the federal surface transportation program, the Transportation Research Board recognized a gap: no proposals explicitly addressed research to mitigate GHG emissions and energy consumption attributable to passenger and freight travel or to adapt to climate change. A Transportation Research Program for Mitigating and Adapting to Climate Change and Conserving Energy is the product of a study to suggest research programs to fill this and other perceived gaps. Specifically, this book identifies research needs with regard to policies and strategies relating to the use of the transportation system and to assist infrastructure owners in adapting to climate change; focuses on research programs that could provide guidance to officials at all levels responsible for policies that affect the use of surface transportation infrastructure and its operation, maintenance, and construction; and aims to help officials begin to adapt the infrastructure to climate changes that are already occurring or that are expected to occur in the next several decades.

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