• Geography & the Environment
      May 2016

      British Urban Trees

      A Social and Cultural History c.1800–1914

      by Paul A. Elliott

      GREENING THE VICTORIAN URBAN WORLD Whether we consider the great London Planes which are now the largest trees in many British urban streets, the exotic ornamentals from across the globe flourishing in numerous private gardens, the stately trees of public parks and squares or the dense colourful foliage of suburbia, the impact of trees and arboriculture upon modern towns and their ecosystems is clear. From the formal walks and squares of the Georgian town to Victorian tree-lined boulevards and commemorative oaks, trees are the organic statuary of modern urban society, providing continuity yet constantly changing through the day and over the seasons. Interfacing between humans and nature, connecting the continents and reaching back and forward through time to past and future generations, they have come to define urbanity while simultaneously evoking nature and the countryside. This book is the first major study of British urban arboriculture between 1800 and 1914 and draws upon fresh approaches in geographical, urban and environmental history. It makes a major contribution to our understanding of where, how and why trees grew in British towns in the period, the social and cultural impact of these and the attitudes taken towards them.

    • Geography & the Environment
      June 2014

      Eco-History

      An Introduction to Biodiversity and Conservation

      by Ian Rotherham

      AN ACCESSIBLE INTRODUCTION TO BIODIVERSITY, CONSERVATION AND THE ECO-CULTURAL NATURE OF LANDSCAPES Key issues are addressed in short, focused chapters, supported by a detailed thousand-year timeline based on the British Isles. Rotherham is convinced that to conserve wildlife or ecology, and to heal the wounds of human impacts, we must understand our own history and how, over countless centuries, we have forged today’s ecologies from our impacts on, and utilisation of, nature. He argues that the interlinked concepts of biodiversity, nature conservation and of sustainability are too often mixed with notions of ‘wilderness’ and ‘nature’ and ‘naturalness’. Much of the biodiversity that we hope to conserve is the result of long-term interactions between people and nature. It is a ‘cultural ecology’, the product of the environment, history and tradition. Recognising that the landscapes around us are ‘eco-cultural’ not ‘natural’ is, Rotherham suggests, the key to understanding contemporary biodiversity and major challenges for ideas of future conservation and sustainability. The book introduces the background to humanity’s interactions with Nature and the forces at work in shaping today’s world. It is essential reading for anyone wishing to understand the nature of the global environmental crisis and how we got here. In particular, it will be a stimulating guide to students and teachers or lecturers from sixth form and college to university. It will also appeal to the ordinary wildlife enthusiast wishing understand the past, and to gain insight into what might be in store for the future.

    • Mind, Body, Spirit
      June 2015

      Awakening Leadership

      Embracing Mindfulness, Your Life’s Purpose, and the Leader You Were Born to Be

      by Horner, Christine

      Human advancement requires the realization that each one of us has an essential role to fulfill to lead humanity into a new era of true equality and prosperity. In Awakening Leadership, Horner describes how mindfulness connects us to the Unified Field of Creation, opening the door to our infinite potential and our life’s purpose. If Earth’s prime directive is oneness, its universal guiding principle is sustainability. In the New Leadership Blueprint, sustainability becomes the all-inclusive compass that redefines morality, values, the way we care for one another and the planet. Transcending boundaries, Awakening Leadership is an illuminating “human” guide that will inspire you to immediately begin living your life on purpose toward building a better world. It’s your time to thrive! www.ChristineHorner.com. www.AwakeningLeader.org

    • Science & Mathematics
      November 2018

      Supercritical Fluid Chromatography

      Volume 1

      by Gerard Rosse, Terry A. Berger, Eric R. Francotte, Abhijit Tarafder, Steven M. Collier, Jason F. Hill, Craig White, Andreas Kaerner, Alfonso Rivera, Eric Seest, Matthew Belvo, John Burnett, Thomas Perun, Arancha Sonia Marin, Thomas Castle, María Luz de la Puente, Cristina Anta, Pilar Lopez, Vincent Desfontaine, Raul Nicoli, Tiia Kuuranne, Jean-Luc Veuthey, Davy Guillarme, Alexander Marziale, Eric Lesellier, Caroline West, Chandan L. Barhate, Erin E. Jordan, Philip A. Searle

      Supercritical Fluid Chromatography is a comprehensive guide to this modern separation technology. The book examines the main principles of SFC, advantages and challenges in comparison with common liquid chromatography as well as capabilities on the analytical and preparative scale. In particular, the authors demonstrate excellence of SFC for chiral separations, which makes the technique indispensable for pharmaceutical industry.

    • Geography & the Environment
      August 2018

      Green Chemistry in Industry

      by Mark Anthony Benvenuto, Heinz Plaumann, Philip G. Jessop, Laura M. Reyes, Steven P. Kelley, Paula Berton, Andreas Metlen, Robin D. Rogers, Keith E. Gutowski, Philip G. Sliva, Raymond Neff, Agnieszka Gajewski, Pei-Yu Kuo, Ning Yan, Nicole Tratnik, Jing Luo, Steven J. Bachofer, Mark D. Lingwood

      The “greening” of industry processes, i.e. making them more sustainable, is a popular and often lucrative trend which has emerged over recent years. The 3rd volume of Green Chemical Processing considers sustainable chemistry in the context of corporate interests. The American Chemical Society’s 12 Principles of Green Chemistry are woven throughout this text as well as the series to which this book belongs.

    • Geography & the Environment
      October 2019

      Energy, the Great Driver

      Seven Revolutions and the Challenges of Climate Change

      by Gareth Wyn Jones

      This book explores the relationships between energy, work, power and material and social complexity over the last four billion years, suggesting that in six revolutions this relationship has been fundamental to the trajectory of life on our planet. The stability of this growing complexity has required a parallel hierarchy of homeostatic, regulatory mechanisms, and the profoundly disturbing implications of these twin hypotheses to the challenges of anthropogenic climate change are here explained.

    • Management of land & natural resources
      April 2014

      Breathing Space

      The Natural and Unnatural History of Air

      by Mark Everard

      In this book Mark Everard argues that governments and citizens too often take the air we breathe for granted. Air and the wider atmosphere are vital in protecting us from radiation, maintaining climate and weather patterns, dispersing water, seeds and pollen, and serving as an alternative source of energy. Breathing Space overturns conventional thinking on the atmosphere, and is the first book to properly integrate air into the wider environmental discourse. Outlining the structure and development of the atmosphere, Everard assesses its importance within the environment as a whole. Everard’s work represents the long overdue incorporation of air into our wider understanding of ecosystems, and argues persuasively for the need for governments to recognise the importance of air as a resource. A must read for scholars, students and activists.

    • Sustainability

      Grassroots Struggles for Sustainability in Central America

      by Lynn R Horton

      Drawing on the testimony of leaders and residents of three communities in Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama, Horton explores grassroots assumptions, values, and practices of sustainable development and, in particular, the ways in which they overlap with or challenge international financial institutions' discourse of sustainability. With a comparative, empirical approach, Horton also analyses dominant practices linked to sustainable development -- neoliberal reforms, project interventions, and environmental protection. She reveals how these practices support or undermine economic, cultural, and political opportunities for the rural and indigenous poor and impact these communities' advancement of their own visions of sustainability. Finally, the author explores processes of empowerment that enable communities to articulate and put into practice local visions of sustainability, which contribute toward broader social and structural transformations. GRASSROOTS STRUGGLES FOR SUSTAINABILITY IN CENTRAL AMERICA will interest sociologists, anthropologists, and others who study the theory and practice of sustainable development.

    • Organization & management of education

      Sustainability

      A Step-by-step Guide to Creating a Sustainable Early Years Setting

      by Anthony. David

    • Sustainability
      March 2011

      Organic Farming

      An International History

      by Jessica Aschemann, Thomas Cierpka, Gunter Vogt, Michael Sligh, Deborah H Stinner, Urs Niggli, Susanne Padel, Otto Schmid, Bernard Geier, Philip Conford, Inger Källander, Dina Foguelman, Els Wynen, Katherine DiMatteo. Edited by William Lockeretz.

      Beginning as a small protest to the industrialization of agriculture in the 1920s, organic farming has become a significant force in agricultural policy, marketing, and research. No longer dismissed as unscientific and counterproductive, organic techniques are now taken seriously by farmers, consumers, scientists, food processors, marketers, and regulatory agencies in much of the world. Organic farming is both dynamic and forward-looking but is also rooted in tradition. It is these traditions that can provide valuable starting points in debates over how organic farming should meet new challenges such as globalization, the emergence of new production techniques, and growing concern over equity and social justice in agriculture. Complementing general discussions with case histories of important organic institutions in various countries, this comprehensive discussion is the first to explore the development of organic agriculture.

    • Sustainability
      June 1999

      Agrobiodiversity

      Characterization, Utilization and Management

      by Edited by David Wood, Jillian M Lenné

      Global attention to biodiversity has expanded in the past decade. Agricultural biodiversity is the most important part of biodiversity for human survival, yet has been neglected as a topic. This book provides a broad review of current thinking on agrobiodiversity - what it is, how it is conserved, and how it can be better utilized in sustainable farming. It brings together contributions from a wide geographical and disciplinary background. Emphasis is placed on functional interactions between components of agrobiodiversity in a range of farming systems, illustrated by many case studies. The book relates the evolution of agrobiodiversity and its successful management to the broader environment and to the growing need to conserve biodiversity in productive agricultural systems. It is essential reading for ecologists, biologists and agricultural scientists.

    • Sustainability
      February 1991

      Toward Sustainability

      A Plan for Collaborative Research on Agriculture and Natural Resource Management

      by Panel for Collaborative Research Support for AID's Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resource Management Program; Board on Agriculture; Board on Science and Technology for International Development; National Research Council

      Toward Sustainability recommends a design for a new Collaborative Research Support Program (CRSP) for the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). Currently, eight CRSPs operate under legislation that supports long-term agricultural research of benefit to developing countries and the United States. This book defines a process by which knowledge from all relevant AID-supported programs could be integrated and applied to advance profitable farming systems that improve local conditions and contribute to environmental goals. It makes recommendations on the types of competitive grants that should be made available under a new program, institutional participation, content of research proposals, and administrative procedures.

    • Sustainability
      February 1991

      Toward Sustainability

      Soil and Water Research Priorities for Developing Countries

      by Committee on International Soil and Water Research and Development, Water Science and Technology Board, CGER, Board on Science and Technology for International Development, Office of International Affairs, National Research Council

      How can high-growth areas such as Africa, Asia, and Latin America sustain agricultural production for current and future generations? Toward Sustainability explores research priorities to support sustainable agriculture. The book identifies six areas that could offer great rewards: addressing institutional constraints on resource conservation, enhancing soil biological processes, managing soil properties, improving water resource management, matching crops to environments, and effectively incorporating social and cultural dimensions into research. Also highlighted is the importance of developing collaborative, integrated research strategies and flexible mechanisms to periodically evaluate and reassess research priorities.

    • Sustainability
      February 1993

      Sustaining Our Water Resources

      by Water Science and Technology Board, National Research Council

      This volume, a collection of seven essays by individuals prominent in the water resources field, commemorates the tenth anniversary of the Water Science and Technology Board. The essays cover a variety of current issues in the field, including intergenerational fairness and water resources, the relationship between policy and science for American rivers, changing values and perceptions in the hydrologic sciences, challenges to water resources decision making, and changing concepts of systems management. An overview of institutions in the field is also given.

    • Sustainability
      February 1992

      Grasslands and Grassland Sciences in Northern China

      by Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China; Office of International Affairs; Policy and Global Affairs; National Research Council

      This volume describes one of the most extensive grassland ecosystems and the efforts of Chinese scientists to understand it. Leading Chinese scientists attribute the decline in China's grasslands to overgrazing and excessive cultivation of marginal areas and discuss measures to limit the damage. The book gives its view on the Chinese approach to the study of grasslands and the relevance of this activity in China to global scientific concerns.

    • Sustainability
      July 2010

      Certifiably Sustainable?

      The Role of Third-Party Certification Systems: Report of a Workshop

      by Committee on Certification of Sustainable Products and Services; Science and Technology for Sustainability Program; Policy and Global Affairs; National Research Council

      Consumption of goods and services represents a growing share of global economic activity. In the United States, consumption accounts for more than two-thirds of gross domestic product. This trend of increasing consumption has brought with it negative consequences for the environment and human well-being. Global demand for energy, food, and all manner of goods is on the rise, putting strains on the natural and human capital required to produce them. Extractive industries and production processes are prominent causes of species endangerment. Modern economies are underpinned by substantial energy consumption, a primary contributor to the current climate crisis. Expanding international trade has led to many economic opportunities, but has also contributed to unfair labor practices and wealth disparities. While certain processes have improved or become more efficient, and certain practices have been outlawed or amended, the sheer scale of global consumption and its attendant impacts continue to be major challenges we face in the transition to sustainability. Third-party certification systems have emerged over the last 15 years as a tool with some promise. There has been anecdotal evidence of success, but to date the overall impact of certified goods and services has been small. Moreover, definitions of sustainable vary across sectors and markets, and rigorous assessments of these programs have been few and far between. In order to take a step in learning from this field of practice, the National Academies' Science and Technology for Sustainability Program held a workshop to illuminate the decision making process of those who purchase and produce certified goods and services. It was also intended to help clarify the scope and limitations of the scientific knowledge that might contribute to the economic success of certified products. The workshop, summarized in this volume, involved presentations and discussions with approximately 40 invited experts from academia, business, government, and nongovernmental organizations.

    • Sustainability
      October 2010

      Pathways to Urban Sustainability

      Research and Development on Urban Systems: Summary of a Workshop

      by Committee on the Challenge of Developing Sustainable Urban Systems; Science and Technology for Sustainability Program; Policy and Global Affairs; National Research Council

      More than half of the world's people now live in cities. In the United States, the figure is 80 percent. It is worthwhile to consider how this trend of increased urbanization, if inevitable, could be made more sustainable. One fundamental shortcoming of urban research and programs is that they sometimes fail to recognize urban areas as systems. Current institutions and actors are not accustomed to exploring human-environment interactions, particularly at an urban-scale. The fact is that these issues involve complex interactions, many of which are not yet fully understood. Thus a key challenge for the 21st century is this: How can we develop sustainable urban systems that provide healthy, safe and affordable environments for the growing number of Americans living in cities and their surrounding metropolitan areas? To address this question, the National Research Council organized a workshop exploring the landscape of urban sustainability research programs in the United States. The workshop, summarized in this volume, was designed to allow participants to share information about the activities and planning efforts of federal agencies, along with related initiatives by universities, the private sector, nongovernmental groups, state and local agencies, and international organizations. Participants were encouraged to explore how urban sustainability can move beyond analyses devoted to single disciplines and sectors to systems-level thinking and effective interagency cooperation. To do this, participants examined areas of potential coordination among different R&D programs, with special consideration given to how the efforts of federal agencies can best complement and leverage the efforts of other key stakeholders. Pathways to Urban Sustainability offers a broad contextual summary of workshop presentations and discussions for distribution to federal agencies, regional organizations, academic institutions, think tanks and other groups engaged in urban research.

    • Sustainability
      January 2012

      Renewable Fuel Standard

      Potential Economic and Environmental Effects of U.S. Biofuel Policy

      by Committee on Economic and Environmental Impacts of Increasing Biofuels Production; Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources; Division on Earth and Life Studies; Board on Energy and Environmental Systems; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; National Research Council

      In the United States, we have come to depend on plentiful and inexpensive energy to support our economy and lifestyles. In recent years, many questions have been raised regarding the sustainability of our current pattern of high consumption of nonrenewable energy and its environmental consequences. Further, because the United States imports about 55 percent of the nation's consumption of crude oil, there are additional concerns about the security of supply. Hence, efforts are being made to find alternatives to our current pathway, including greater energy efficiency and use of energy sources that could lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions such as nuclear and renewable sources, including solar, wind, geothermal, and biofuels. The United States has a long history with biofuels and the nation is on a course charted to achieve a substantial increase in biofuels. Renewable Fuel Standard evaluates the economic and environmental consequences of increasing biofuels production as a result of Renewable Fuels Standard, as amended by EISA (RFS2). The report describes biofuels produced in 2010 and those projected to be produced and consumed by 2022, reviews model projections and other estimates of the relative impact on the prices of land, and discusses the potential environmental harm and benefits of biofuels production and the barriers to achieving the RFS2 consumption mandate. Policy makers, investors, leaders in the transportation sector, and others with concerns for the environment, economy, and energy security can rely on the recommendations provided in this report.

    • Sustainability
      April 2014

      Pathways to Urban Sustainability

      Perspective from Portland and the Pacific Northwest: Summary of a Workshop

      by Dominic A. Brose, Rapporteur; Committee on Regional Approaches to Urban Sustainability: A Focus on Portland; Science and Technology for Sustainability Program; Policy and Global Affairs; National Research Council

      Pathways to Urban Sustainability: Perspective from Portland and the Pacific Northwest is the summary of a workshop convened by the National Research Council's Science and Technology for Sustainability Program in May 2013 to examine issues relating to sustainability and human-environment interactions in the Portland metropolitan region. Topics addressed included the role of land-use restrictions on development, transportation innovations, and economic and social challenges. The speakers at the workshop used examples from Portland and the greater Pacific Northwest region to explore critical questions in finding pathways to urban sustainability. This was the third and final of a series of three place-based urban sustainability workshops - the other two workshops focused on Atlanta, Georgia and Houston, Texas. These public workshops gathered local, state, and federal officials, academics, and key stakeholders to examine how challenges due to continued growth in the regions can be addressed within the context of sustainability. For more than 40 years, the Portland Metropolitan Region has been a national leader in urban policies and investments intended to revitalize the central city and adjacent neighborhoods, preserve the environment, improve equity, and make the city more economically competitive and livable. Portland has been both emulated as path breaking and discounted as overly idiosyncratic. Among the elements contributing to Portland's success have been strong public-private partnerships, a culture of planning, and a willingness to implement diverse ideas generated by federal, state, and local agencies, academics, and the private sector. Regionally, Portland benefits from its location in the middle of the progressive Cascadia Corridor, stretching from Vancouver, British Columbia, to San Francisco, California. This report uses examples from Portland and the Northwest U.S./S.W. Canada region to explore critical questions about the future of urban sustainability. The report provides background about Portland and Cascadia, emphasizing policy innovations and lessons that are potentially transferable elsewhere; focuses on ways to leverage local success through partnerships with state and federal agencies, companies, and nongovernment organizations; examines academic and corporate scientific and engineering research that could help cities to become more sustainable; and addresses the challenging question of how resource-constrained cities can become agents for achieving broader societal goals not directly linked to their operational mandates, such as climate change mitigation, energy independence, and improvement in human health, particularly in low-income communities.

    • Sustainability
      October 2014

      Sustainability Concepts in Decision-Making

      Tools and Approaches for the US Environmental Protection Agency

      by Committee on Scientific Tools and Approaches for Sustainability; Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology; Division on Earth and Life Studies; Science and Technology for Sustainability Program; Policy and Global Affairs; National Research Council

      In its current strategic plan, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) describes a cross-agency strategy to advance sustainable environmental outcomes and optimize economic and social outcomes through Agency decisions and actions. Sustainability has evolved from an aspiration to a growing body of practices. The evolution includes a transition from the development of broad goals toward the implementation of specific policies and programs for achieving them and the use of indicators and metrics for measuring progress. Without losing focus on implementing its existing regulatory mandates, EPA's incorporation of sustainability considerations into its decision-making about potential environmental, social, and economic outcomes involves shifting from a focus on specific pollutants in an environmental medium (air, water, or land) to a broader assessment of interactions among human, natural, and manufactured systems. EPA has indicated that it will need to consider the use of a variety of analytic tools and approaches to assess the potential sustainability-related effects of its decisions and actions in response to complex environmental challenges. Sustainability Concepts in Decision-Making: Tools and Approaches for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency examines scientific tools and approaches for incorporating sustainability concepts into assessments used to support EPA decision making. Using specific case studies, this report considers the application of analytic and scientific tools, methods, and approaches presented in the 2011 NRC report Sustainability and the U.S. EPA. This report examines both currently available and emerging tools, methods, and approaches to find those most appropriate for assessing and/or evaluating potential economic, social and environmental outcomes within an EPA decision context. Sustainability Concepts in Decision Making also discusses data needs and post-decision evaluation of outcomes on dimensions of sustainability. A broad array of sustainability tools and approaches are suitable for assessing potential environmental, social, and economic outcomes in EPA's decision-making context. The recommendations of this report will assist the agency to optimize environmental, social, and economic outcomes in EPA decisions.

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