• Geography & the Environment
      June 2014

      Eco-History

      An Introduction to Biodiversity and Conservation

      by Ian Rotherham

      AN ACCESSIBLE INTRODUCTION TO BIODIVERSITY, CONSERVATION AND THE ECO-CULTURAL NATURE OF LANDSCAPES Key issues are addressed in short, focused chapters, supported by a detailed thousand-year timeline based on the British Isles. Rotherham is convinced that to conserve wildlife or ecology, and to heal the wounds of human impacts, we must understand our own history and how, over countless centuries, we have forged today’s ecologies from our impacts on, and utilisation of, nature. He argues that the interlinked concepts of biodiversity, nature conservation and of sustainability are too often mixed with notions of ‘wilderness’ and ‘nature’ and ‘naturalness’. Much of the biodiversity that we hope to conserve is the result of long-term interactions between people and nature. It is a ‘cultural ecology’, the product of the environment, history and tradition. Recognising that the landscapes around us are ‘eco-cultural’ not ‘natural’ is, Rotherham suggests, the key to understanding contemporary biodiversity and major challenges for ideas of future conservation and sustainability. The book introduces the background to humanity’s interactions with Nature and the forces at work in shaping today’s world. It is essential reading for anyone wishing to understand the nature of the global environmental crisis and how we got here. In particular, it will be a stimulating guide to students and teachers or lecturers from sixth form and college to university. It will also appeal to the ordinary wildlife enthusiast wishing understand the past, and to gain insight into what might be in store for the future.

    • Waste management
      January 1984

      Disposal of Industrial and Domestic Wastes

      Land and Sea Alternatives

      by Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics and Resources, National Research Council

      Can decision makers meaningfully compare land versus sea options for waste disposal? Using available scientific data on waste behavior and new studies from East and West Coast dump sites, this book shows how to use a matrix approach to rank the ecological and health consequences of any combination of waste, site, and disposal system design.

    • Waste management
      February 1985

      Reducing Hazardous Waste Generation

      An Evaluation and a Call for Action

      by Committee on Institutional Considerations in Reducing the Generation of Hazardous Industrial Wastes, Environmental Studies Board, National Research Council

      This is the first thorough exploration of how industry, government, and the public can use available nontechnical means to reduce significantly the amount of hazardous waste entering the environment. Among the approaches considered are modifications to avoid contaminating normal wastewater with hazardous by-products, education of management and engineering personnel about reuse and recycling, reform of regulations and enforcement procedures, and incentives for improvement in waste practices. A free digest of this volume accompanies each copy.

    • Waste management
      January 1984

      Social and Economic Aspects of Radioactive Waste Disposal

      Considerations for Institutional Management

      by Panel on Social and Economic Aspects of Radioactive Waste Management, Board on Radioactive Waste Management, National Research Council

      To complement the growing body of knowledge on the physical aspects of radioactive waste disposal, this new report identifies the ;ITsocioeconomic and institutional;IT policy issues that must be addressed in implementing the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. Site location, transportation modes, disposal schedules, regulatory systems, and the effects of these systems on the people living near the sites and along the transportation routes are addressed.

    • Waste management
      January 1986

      Hazards

      Technology and Fairness

      by National Academy of Engineering

      "In the burgeoning literature on technological hazards, this volume is one of the best," states Choice in a three-part approach, it addresses the moral, scientific, social, and commercial questions inherent in hazards management. Part I discusses how best to regulate hazards arising from chronic, low-level exposures and from low-probability events when science is unable to assign causes or estimate consequences of such hazards; Part II examines fairness in the distribution of risks and benefits of potentially hazardous technologies; and Part III presents practical lessons and cautions about managing hazardous technologies. Together, the three sections put hazard management into perspective, providing a broad spectrum of views and information.

    • Waste management
      February 1989

      Using Oil Spill Dispersants on the Sea

      by Committee on Effectiveness of Oil Spill Dispersants, Marine Board, National Research Council

      While major oil spills are rare, oil slicks can have disastrous environmental and economic consequences. This book summarizes research on the use of chemical dispersants: their effectiveness and limitations and the results of using them in different spill situations. Based on laboratory and field research as well as on actual case histories, this book contains a clear-cut set of recommendations for action, planning, and research. Of special interest is the chapter on the biological effects of oil itself and of oil treated with chemical dispersants.

    • Waste management
      January 1988

      Hazardous Waste Site Management

      Water Quality Issues

      by Water Science and Technology Board, National Research Council

      Hazardous Waste Site Management addresses current methods used in the regulatory process with respect to water quality cleanup levels. Information and perspectives on the adequacy of these methods are provided by representatives from water utilities, industry, and environmental groups. Setting environmental standards, establishing and meeting ground-water protection goals, and specific approaches to setting goals are also fully examined.

    • Waste management
      January 1989

      Biosafety in the Laboratory

      Prudent Practices for Handling and Disposal of Infectious Materials

      by Committee on Hazardous Biological Substances in the Laboratory,National Research Council

      Biosafety in the Laboratory is a concise set of practical guidelines for handling and disposing of biohazardous material. The consensus of top experts in laboratory safety, this volume provides the information needed for immediate improvement of safety practices. It discusses high- and low-risk biological agents (including the highest-risk materials handled in labs today), presents the "seven basic rules of biosafety," addresses special issues such as the shipping of dangerous materials, covers waste disposal in detail, offers a checklist for administering laboratory safety--and more.

    • Waste management
      February 1992

      Nuclear Power

      Technical and Institutional Options for the Future

      by Committee on Future Nuclear Power Development, Energy Engineering Board, National Research Council

      The construction of nuclear power plants in the United States is stopping, as regulators, reactor manufacturers, and operators sort out a host of technical and institutional problems. This volume summarizes the status of nuclear power, analyzes the obstacles to resumption of construction of nuclear plants, and describes and evaluates the technological alternatives for safer, more economical reactors. Topics covered include Institutional issues--including regulatory practices at the federal and state levels, the growing trends toward greater competition in the generation of electricity, and nuclear and nonnuclear generation options. Critical evaluation of advanced reactors--covering attributes such as cost, construction time, safety, development status, and fuel cycles. Finally, three alternative federal research and development programs are presented.

    • Waste management
      February 1992

      Radioactive Waste Repository Licensing

      Synopsis of a Symposium

      by Board on Radioactive Waste Management, Commission on Geosciences Environment and Resources, National Research Council

      This book recounts the issues raised and the viewpoints aired at a recent symposium on repository licensing. It summarizes the problems surrounding the setting of an Environmental Protection Agency standard for the release of radionuclides and the regulatory problems inherent in meeting such a standard. Symposium participants came from a variety of federal agencies and advisory groups, state governments, public interest groups, engineering firms, national laboratories, and foreign and international organizations. The book illustrates the strong feeling in the radioactive waste disposal community that changes must be made if the United States is to fulfill its promise of safe management of current and future nuclear waste.

    • Waste management
      January 1991

      Opportunities in Applied Environmental Research and Development

      by Committee on Opportunities in Applied Environmental Research and Development, National Research Council

      Research is the foundation of environmental protection. This volume reviews four areas of opportunity in applied environmental research and development: waste reduction, ecosystem and landscape change, anticipatory research, and long-term chemical toxicity. It presents the consensus of workshops held to explore these four areas as well as an introductory chapter that summarizes the committee's view of environmental research and development.

    • Waste management
      January 1993

      Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas

      by Committee on Wastewater Management for Coastal Urban Areas, National Research Council

      Close to one-half of all Americans live in coastal counties. The resulting flood of wastewater, stormwater, and pollutants discharged into coastal waters is a major concern. This book offers a well-delineated approach to integrated coastal management beginning with wastewater and stormwater control. The committee presents an overview of current management practices and problems. The core of the volume is a detailed model for integrated coastal management, offering basic principles and methods, a direction for moving from general concerns to day-to-day activities, specific steps from goal setting through monitoring performance, and a base of scientific and technical information. Success stories from the Chesapeake and Santa Monica bays are included. The volume discusses potential barriers to integrated coastal management and how they may be overcome and suggests steps for introducing this concept into current programs and legislation. This practical volume will be important to anyone concerned about management of coastal waters: policymakers, resource and municipal managers, environmental professionals, concerned community groups, and researchers, as well as faculty and students in environmental studies.

    • Waste management
      January 1993

      In Situ Bioremediation

      When Does it Work?

      by Committee on In Situ Bioremediation, National Research Council

      In situ bioremediation--the use of microorganisms for on-site removal of contaminants--is potentially cheaper, faster, and safer than conventional cleanup methods. But in situ bioremediation is also clouded in uncertainty, controversy, and mistrust. This volume from the National Research Council provides direction for decisionmakers and offers detailed and readable explanations of the processes involved in in situ bioremediation, circumstances in which it is best used, and methods of measurement, field testing, and modeling to evaluate the results of bioremediation projects. Bioremediation experts representing academic research, field practice, regulation, and industry provide accessible information and case examples; they explore how in situ bioremediation works, how it has developed since its first commercial use in 1972, and what research and education efforts are recommended for the future. The volume includes a series of perspective papers. The book will be immediately useful to policymakers, regulators, bioremediation practitioners and purchasers, environmental groups, concerned citizens, faculty, and students.

    • Waste management
      January 1993

      Alternative Technologies for the Destruction of Chemical Agents and Munitions

      by Committee on Alternative Chemical Demilitarization Technologies, National Research Council

      The U.S. Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program was established with the goal of destroying the nation's stockpile of lethal unitary chemical weapons. Since 1990 the U.S. Army has been testing a baseline incineration technology on Johnston Island in the southern Pacific Ocean. Under the planned disposal program, this baseline technology will be imported in the mid to late 1990s to continental United States disposal facilities; construction will include eight stockpile storage sites. In early 1992 the Committee on Alternative Chemical Demilitarization Technologies was formed by the National Research Council to investigate potential alternatives to the baseline technology. This book, the result of its investigation, addresses the use of alternative destruction technologies to replace, partly or wholly, or to be used in addition to the baseline technology. The book considers principal technologies that might be applied to the disposal program, strategies that might be used to manage the stockpile, and combinations of technologies that might be employed.

    • Waste management
      January 1994

      Alternatives for Ground Water Cleanup

      by Committee on Ground Water Cleanup Alternatives, National Research Council

      There may be nearly 300,000 waste sites in the United States where ground water and soil are contaminated. Yet recent studies question whether existing technologies can restore contaminated ground water to drinking water standards, which is the goal for most sites and the result expected by the public. How can the nation balance public health, technological realities, and cost when addressing ground water cleanup? This new volume offers specific conclusions, outlines research needs, and recommends policies that are technologically sound while still protecting health and the environment. Authored by the top experts from industry and academia, this volume Examines how the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the subsurface environment, as well as the properties of contaminants, complicate the cleanup task. Reviews the limitations of widely used conventional pump-and-treat cleanup systems, including detailed case studies. Evaluates a range of innovative cleanup technologies and the barriers to their full implementation. Presents specific recommendations for policies and practices in evaluating contamination sites, in choosing remediation technologies, and in setting appropriate cleanup goals.

    • Waste management
      January 1994

      Management and Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutonium

      by Committee on International Security and Arms Control, National Academy of Sciences

      Within the next decade, many thousands of U.S. and Russian nuclear weapons are slated to be retired as a result of nuclear arms reduction treaties and unilateral pledges. A hundred tons or more of plutonium and tons of highly enriched uranium will no longer be needed. The management and disposition of these fissile materials, the essential ingredients of nuclear weapons, pose urgent challenges for international security. This book offers recommendations for all phases of the problem, from dismantlement of excess warheads, through intermediate storage of the fissle materials they contain, to ultimate disposition of the plutonium.

    • Waste management
      February 1994

      Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions

      by Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, National Research Council

      The U.S. Army's chemical stockpile is aging and gradually deteriorating. Its elimination has public, political, and environmental ramifications. The U.S. Department of Defense has designated the Department of the Army as the executive agent responsible for the safe, timely, and effective elimination of the chemical stockpile. This book provides recommendations on the direction the Army should take in pursuing and completing its Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program.

    • Waste management
      July 1995

      Management and Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutonium

      Reactor-Related Options

      by Panel on Reactor-Related Options for the Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutonium, National Research Council

      Within the next decade, many thousands of U.S. and Russian nuclear weapons are slated to be retired as a result of nuclear arms reduction treaties and unilateral pledges. Hundreds of tons of plutonium and highly enriched uranium will no longer be needed for weapons purposes and will pose urgent challenges to international security. This is the supporting volume to a study by the Committee on International Security and Arms Control which dealt with all phases of the management and disposition of these materials. This technical study concentrates on the option for the disposition of plutonium, looking in detail at the different types of reactors in which weapons plutonium could be burned and at the vitrification of plutonium, and comparing them using economic, security and environmental criteria.

    • Waste management
      January 1994

      Ranking Hazardous-Waste Sites for Remedial Action

      by Committee on Remedial Action Priorities for Hazardous Waste Sites, National Research Council

      The United States may not be able to make all hazardous-waste sites as clean as possible. Therefore, priorities must be set for the timing of waste site remediations. This book assesses several of the government's methods of ranking sites for remediation and compares the performance of three such models using input data developed from the same set of waste sites. Because inconsistent methods may be neither effective nor prudent, the book recommends that the government consider developing a unified national approach to setting priorities to replace the current multiple approaches.

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