• Geography & the Environment
      June 2014

      Eco-History

      An Introduction to Biodiversity and Conservation

      by Ian Rotherham

      AN ACCESSIBLE INTRODUCTION TO BIODIVERSITY, CONSERVATION AND THE ECO-CULTURAL NATURE OF LANDSCAPES Key issues are addressed in short, focused chapters, supported by a detailed thousand-year timeline based on the British Isles. Rotherham is convinced that to conserve wildlife or ecology, and to heal the wounds of human impacts, we must understand our own history and how, over countless centuries, we have forged today’s ecologies from our impacts on, and utilisation of, nature. He argues that the interlinked concepts of biodiversity, nature conservation and of sustainability are too often mixed with notions of ‘wilderness’ and ‘nature’ and ‘naturalness’. Much of the biodiversity that we hope to conserve is the result of long-term interactions between people and nature. It is a ‘cultural ecology’, the product of the environment, history and tradition. Recognising that the landscapes around us are ‘eco-cultural’ not ‘natural’ is, Rotherham suggests, the key to understanding contemporary biodiversity and major challenges for ideas of future conservation and sustainability. The book introduces the background to humanity’s interactions with Nature and the forces at work in shaping today’s world. It is essential reading for anyone wishing to understand the nature of the global environmental crisis and how we got here. In particular, it will be a stimulating guide to students and teachers or lecturers from sixth form and college to university. It will also appeal to the ordinary wildlife enthusiast wishing understand the past, and to gain insight into what might be in store for the future.

    • Biodiversity
      October 1999

      Perspectives on Biodiversity

      Valuing Its Role in an Everchanging World

      by Committee on Noneconomic and Economic Value of Biodiversity, National Research Council

      Resource-management decisions, especially in the area of protecting and maintaining biodiversity, are usually incremental, limited in time by the ability to forecast conditions and human needs, and the result of tradeoffs between conservation and other management goals. The individual decisions may not have a major effect but can have a cumulative major effect. Perspectives on Biodiversity reviews current understanding of the value of biodiversity and the methods that are useful in assessing that value in particular circumstances. It recommends and details a list of components-including diversity of species, genetic variability within and among species, distribution of species across the ecosystem, the aesthetic satisfaction derived from diversity, and the duty to preserve and protect biodiversity. The book also recommends that more information about the role of biodiversity in sustaining natural resources be gathered and summarized in ways useful to managers. Acknowledging that decisions about biodiversity are necessarily qualitative and change over time because of the nonmarket nature of so many of the values, the committee recommends periodic reviews of management decisions.

    • Biodiversity
      January 2009

      In the Light of Evolution

      Volume II: Biodiversity and Extinction

      by John C. Avise, Stephen P. Hubbell, and Francisco J. Ayala, Editors, National Research Council

      The current extinction crisis is of human making, and any favorable resolution of that biodiversity crisis--among the most dire in the 4-billion-year history of Earth--will have to be initiated by mankind. Little time remains for the public, corporations, and governments to awaken to the magnitude of what is at stake. This book aims to assist that critical educational mission, synthesizing recent scientific information and ideas about threats to biodiversity in the past, present, and projected future. This is the second volume from the In the Light of Evolution series, based on a series of Arthur M. Sackler colloquia, and designed to promote the evolutionary sciences. Each installment explores evolutionary perspectives on a particular biological topic that is scientifically intriguing but also has special relevance to contemporary societal issues or challenges. Individually and collectively, the ILE series aims to interpret phenomena in various areas of biology through the lens of evolution, address some of the most intellectually engaging as well as pragmatically important societal issues of our times, and foster a greater appreciation of evolutionary biology as a consolidating foundation for the life sciences.

    • Biodiversity
      April 2010

      Understanding Climate's Influence on Human Evolution

      by Committee on the Earth System Context for Hominin Evolution; Board on Earth Sciences and Resources; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council

      The hominin fossil record documents a history of critical evolutionary events that have ultimately shaped and defined what it means to be human, including the origins of bipedalism; the emergence of our genus Homo; the first use of stone tools; increases in brain size; and the emergence of Homo sapiens, tools, and culture. The Earth's geological record suggests that some evolutionary events were coincident with substantial changes in African and Eurasian climate, raising the possibility that critical junctures in human evolution and behavioral development may have been affected by the environmental characteristics of the areas where hominins evolved. Understanding Climate's Change on Human Evolution explores the opportunities of using scientific research to improve our understanding of how climate may have helped shape our species. Improved climate records for specific regions will be required before it is possible to evaluate how critical resources for hominins, especially water and vegetation, would have been distributed on the landscape during key intervals of hominin history. Existing records contain substantial temporal gaps. The book's initiatives are presented in two major research themes: first, determining the impacts of climate change and climate variability on human evolution and dispersal; and second, integrating climate modeling, environmental records, and biotic responses. Understanding Climate's Change on Human Evolution suggests a new scientific program for international climate and human evolution studies that involve an exploration initiative to locate new fossil sites and to broaden the geographic and temporal sampling of the fossil and archeological record; a comprehensive and integrative scientific drilling program in lakes, lake bed outcrops, and ocean basins surrounding the regions where hominins evolved and a major investment in climate modeling experiments for key time intervals and regions that are critical to understanding human evolution.

    • Biodiversity
      January 2012

      Twenty-First Century Ecosystems

      Managing the Living World Two Centuries After Darwin: Report of a Symposium

      by Committee for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services: A Symposium; U.S. National Committee for DIVERSITAS; Board on International Scientific Organizations; Policy and Global Affairs; National Research Council

      The two hundredth anniversary of the birth of Charles Darwin, February 12, 2009, occurred at a critical time for the United States and the world. In honor of Darwin's birthday, the National Research Council appointed a committee under the auspices of the U.S. National Committee (USNC) for DIVERSITAS to plan a Symposium on Twenty-first Century Ecosystems. The purpose of the symposium was to capture some of the current excitement and recent progress in scientific understanding of ecosystems, from the microbial to the global level, while also highlighting how improved understanding can be applied to important policy issues that have broad biodiversity and ecosystem effects. The aim was to help inform new policy approaches that could satisfy human needs while also maintaining the integrity of the goods and services provided by biodiversity and ecosystems over both the short and the long terms. This report summarizes the views expressed by symposium participants; however, it does not provide a session-by-session summary of the presentations at the symposium. Instead, the symposium steering committee identified eight key themes that emerged from the lectures, which were addressed in different contexts by different speakers. The focus here is on general principles rather than specifics. These eight themes provide a sharp focus on a few concepts that enable scientists, environmental NGOs, and policy makers to engage more effectively around issues of central importance for biodiversity and ecosystem management.

    • Biology, life sciences

      Maximum Power

      The Ideas and Applications of H.T. Odu

      by Charles A. S. Hall (Editor)

      "Maximum Power" is a synthesis of the creative genius of Howard Thomas Odum as seen through his own words and those of his students, many of whom are now applying his ideas to the world in diverse ways. Offering the holistic, system-oriented thinking of Odum, this in-depth volume examines the interrelationship of humans and nature by integrating environment, energy, and economics. Maximum Power traces the development of Odum's ideas with the objective of providing the conceptual and research history that has led to Odum's far-reaching ideas about making social decisions. The volume is organised along the chronological path that Odum himself followed, from ecology to ecological engineering to ecological economics to his controversial synthesis called 'emergy analysis'.

    • Children's & YA

      The Curious Tale of the Dodo.

      by Anthony Cooper & Simon Kewer

      ‘The curious tale of the dodo’, is the first book in the series from the altruistic environmental brand Don’t do the Dodo. A fun introduction to conservation through the story of the dodo and written in an easy to read Dr Seuss rhyming style with fantastic color illustrations and….. the perfect length for a bedtime story! French translation available. The second book “ Dodo and the importance of BEEing”is now in draft form following the same format and an introuction to bees and their plight.

    • Applied ecology

      Embracing Watershed Politics

      by Edella Schlager (Author) , William Blomquist (Editor)

      As Americans try to better manage and protect the natural resources of our watersheds, is politics getting in the way? Why does watershed management end up being so political? In "Embracing Watershed Politics", political scientists Edella Schlager and William Blomquist provide timely illustrations and thought-provoking explanations of why political considerations are essential, unavoidable, and in some ways even desirable elements of decision making about water and watersheds. With decades of combined study of water management in the United States, they focus on the many contending interests and communities found in America's watersheds, the fundamental dimensions of decision making, and the impacts of science, complexity, and uncertainty on watershed management. Enriched by case studies of the organisations and decision-making processes in several major U.S. watersheds (the Delaware River Basin, San Gabriel River, Platte River, and the Columbia River Basin), "Embracing Watershed Politics" presents a reasoned explanation of why there are so few watershed-scale integrated management agencies and how the more diverse multi-organisational arrangements found in the vast majorities of watersheds work. Although the presence of multiple organisations representing a multitude of communities of interest complicates watershed management, these institutional arrangements can -- under certain conditions -- suit the complexity and uncertainty associated with watershed management in the twenty-first century.

    • Biodiversity
      September 2014

      Global Forest Fragmentation

      by Edited by Chris J Kettle, Lian Pin Koh.

      Forest fragmentation will inevitably continue over the coming years, especially in developing economies. This book provides a cutting edge review of the multi-disciplinary sciences related to studies of global forest fragmentation. It specifically addresses cross-cutting themes from both an ecological and a social sciences perspective. The ultimate goal of Global Forest Fragmentation is to provide a detailed scientific base to support future forest landscape management and planning to meet global environmental and societal needs.

    • Applied ecology
      March 2012

      Life at Extremes

      Environments, Organisms and Strategies for Survival

      by Terry Callaghan, David Barnes, Peter Convey, Mauro Guglielmin, Birgit Sattler, Alexandre Anesio, Ian Hogg, Richard Lutz, Hazel Barton, Verena Heuer, Elly Spijkerman, Terrence McGenity, Florence Pradillon, Kevin Newsham, Roland Psenner, Adrian Glover, Shimon Rachmilevitch. Edited by Elanor M Bell.

      From icy poles to arid deserts, boiling pools to the depths of the sea, this exciting new work studies the remarkable life forms that have made these inhospitable environments their home. The ecological, biological and biogeochemical challenges that higher-level plants and animals, microorganisms and viruses face are detailed, and the unifying themes found between environments discussed. A fascinating and comprehensive resource for researchers and students, this book is packed with colour figures and photos showcasing the most extreme environments and the organisms that have adapted to live in them.

    • Applied ecology
      October 2011

      Grassland Productivity and Ecosystem Services

      by Tony Parsons, Dennis Poppi, Sophie Prache, Andrew W Illius, John McIvor, David Kemp, Sebastien Fontaine, Roland Bol, Stewart F Ledgard, Nina Buchman, Andreas Luescher, Richard McDowell, Luc Abbadie, Phil Grime, Bertrand Dumont, Eric Garnier, Mike Humphreys, Xavier Leroux, Thibaud Decaens, Jean-Louis Peyraud, Greg Lambert, Craig Morris, Herman van Keulen, Alan Franzluebers, Anibal de Moraes Robert Ferrier, Gerard Balent. Edited by Gilles Lemaire, John Hodgson, Abad Chabbi.

      Grassland ecosystems are deeply affected by human activities and need appropriate management to optimise trade-offs between ecosystem functions and services. Until now they have mainly been analysed as agro-ecosystems for animal production but this book looks beyond the role of grassland as a feeding ground, and evaluates other important processes such as carbon sequestration in soils, greenhouse gas regulation and biodiversity protection. This authoritative volume expertly highlights the need for an immediate balance between agriculture and ecological management for sustainability in the future.

    • Applied ecology
      December 2009

      Soil Ecology and Management

      by Joann K Whalen, Luis Sampedro

      Soil ecology is the study of interactions between the physio-chemical components of the soil and organisms living within the soil. Humans are highly dependent upon the soil ecosystem, which provides food, fiber, fuel and ecological services, such as the recycling of atmospheric gases. It is therefore important to understand the function and nature of the soil ecosystem in order to predict and mitigate the long term consequences of present day actions. Soil Ecology and Management describes the organisms inhabiting the soil, their functions and interactions and the dimensions of human impact on the activity of soil organisms and soil ecological function. Chapters discuss basic soil characteristics and biogeochemical cycling, key soil flora and fauna, community-level dynamics (soil food webs) and the ecological and pedological functions of soil organisms. Unlike other soil biology and ecology textbooks, the authors also convey a better understanding of how human activities impact upon soil ecology in a section on ecosystem management and its effects on soil biota and provide a unique perspective on the utility of soil organisms.

    • Biodiversity
      December 2007

      Crop Wild Relative Conservation and Use

      by Edited by Nigel Maxted, Brian V Ford-Lloyd, Shelagh P Kell, José M Iriondo, Mohammad E Dulloo, Jozef Turok

      Crop wild relatives (CWR) are species closely related to crop plants which can contribute beneficial traits, such as pest or disease resistance and yield improvement. These species are critical for improving agricultural production and increasing food security. They are also essential components of natural and semi-natural habitats as well as agricultural systems, and are therefore vital in maintaining ecosystem health. However, CWR, like any other group of wild species, are subject to an increasing range of threats: habitat loss, degradation and mismanagement, over-collection and climate change. Through an examination of the national, regional and global context of CWR, these authoritative studies present methodologies and case studies that review and provide recommendations for global conservation and use. Topics range from the establishment of conservation priorities and strategies, threat assessment and genetic erosion and pollution.

    • Biodiversity
      November 2007

      International Research on Natural Resource Management

      Advances in Impact Assessment

      by Edited by Hermann Waibel, David Zilberman

      Over the past two decades, significant investment has been made into agriculture-related natural resource management research in developing countries. With investors beginning to request the impact of their investments in this research, a review was needed on the economic, social and environmental effects of these projects. Stemming from an effort to address these concerns, this collection of case studies establishes a methodological foundation for impact assessments of NRMR through a discussion of research conducted by the CGIAR around the world. Both micro and macro projects are examined to consider the results of these agricultural and development programs at the farm level as well as on a regional scale.

    • Applied ecology
      April 2007

      Wildlife Damage Control

      Principles for the Management of Damage by Vertebrate Pests

      by Jim Hone

      Wildlife can cause problems worldwide - in conservation, agriculture, forestry and fisheries, as well as to human and animal health and safety in rural and urban areas. For this reason, wildlife in affected areas can be defined as pests, and forms of control sought to limit and prevent damage. In looking at solutions by identifying and using common principles in the assessment and control of pest damage this book focuses on controlling damage, rather than the animal itself. The book demonstrates ecological theories and shows how they are relevant to biodiversity conservation and other topics, and how they can be evaluated in studies of wildlife damage control.

    • Biodiversity
      January 2004

      Biodiversity of West African Forests

      An Ecological Atlas of Woody Plant Species

      by Edited by Lourens Poorter, Frans Bongers, Francois N Kouamé, William D Hawthorne

      The rain forests of West Africa have been designated as one of the world's hotspots of biodiversity. They extend from Ghana to Senegal and are referred to as the Upper Guinean forests. Because of their isolated position, they harbour a large number of rare and endemic animal and plant species.This book focuses on the biodiversity and ecology of these forests. It analyses the factors that give rise to biodiversity and structure tropical plant communities. It also includes an atlas with ecological profiles of rare plant species and large timber species.

    • Biodiversity
      April 2002

      Tropical Mycology: Volume 2, Micromycetes

      by Edited by Roy Watling, Juliet C Frankland, M Ainsworth, Susan Isaac, Clare H Robinson

      Tropical mycology is attracting increasing interest, as the key role of fungi in tropical ecosystems and as pathogens becomes appreciated. This book describes the ecology, biology, economic dimensions and systematics of tropical Micromycetes and is the second of two complementary volumes (Volume 1 covers Macromycetes) developed from papers given at the British Mycological Society’s symposium held in Liverpool in April 2000.

    • Biodiversity
      February 2002

      Tropical Mycology: Volume 1, Macromycetes

      by Edited by Roy Watling, Juliet C Frankland, M Ainsworth, Susan Isaac, Clare H Robinson

      Tropical mycology is attracting increasing interest, as the key role of fungi in tropical ecosystems and as pathogens becomes appreciated. This book is the first of two complementary volumes (Volume 2 covers Micromycetes) produced from papers given at the British Mycological Society's symposium held in Liverpool in April 2000. It describes the ecology, biology, economic dimensions and systematics of tropical Macromycetes. Written by leading experts in their field, the papers have been thoroughly edited and revised.

    • Applied ecology
      February 2002

      Seed Dispersal and Frugivory

      Ecology, Evolution and Conservation

      by Edited by Douglas J Levey, Wesley R Silva, Mauro Galetti

      Until recently, the production of fruits by plants, their consumption by animals (frugivory) and the relevance of these to seed dispersal have attracted less attention than topics such as pollination biology. However, since the 1970s they have started to gain more prominence and now give rise to more research funding, seminal papers and international symposiums. This book contains chapters adapted from the Third International Symposium-Workshop on Frugivores and Seed Dispersal held in August 2000 in Rio Quente, Brazil.

    • Biodiversity
      September 2001

      Invasive Alien Species

      A Toolkit of Best Prevention and Management Practices

      by Edited by R Wittenberg, Matthew J W Cock

      Human activities have contributed to the distribution of many plant, animal and microbial species to parts of the world where they are not native. This spread of alien species can have devastating consequences on native biodiversity. Examples include alien mammals consuming native vegetation and alien insects spreading viruses, as well as plants such as water hyacinth, which has caused major problems to waterways when introduced from South America.The Global Invasive Species Programme (GISP) was established to address concerns with alien invasive species, formulated in the Convention on Biological Diversity. GISP is coordinated by:the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE)the World Conservation Union (IUCN)CAB InternationalIts goal is to improve prevention and management of biological invasions, and this book represents a key outcome. It has been assembled by a team of international experts. Features include:case studies from around the globe, with some emphasis on islandsa focus on biodiversity, but with some consideration of traditional agriculture and forestryadvice on national management plans, including risk analysis.

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