• Geology & the lithosphere
      June 2012

      Introducing Tectonics, Rock Structures and Mountain Belts

      by Graham Park

      Explains the key concepts of tectonics and rock structures to those without a strong mathematical background. The study of geological structures has traditionally been guided by mathematics and physics but, in this book, Graham Park has avoided mathematical equations altogether and has reduced the geometry to the minimum necessary.

    • Geology & the lithosphere
      March 2012

      Introducing Geomorphology

      A Guide to Landforms and Processes

      by Adrian Harvey

      Adrian Harvey introduces the varying geomorphological forces and differing timescales which combine to shape the surface of the earth.

    • The natural world, country life & pets
      April 2010

      Introducing Geology

      A Guide to the World of Rocks

      by Graham Park

      Our world is made of rock. Those who live in a landscape where rock outcrops are obvious will have wondered about the kind of rock they are looking at and how they came to be where they are now. Graham Park explains in simple terms what geology can tell us about the world. Many objects of great beauty and which excite our curiosity, such as crystals or fossils are to be found by examining rocks. Those searching for and examining such objects gain much more by knowing how they originated; whilst fossils, interesting in themselves, tell us, from their context in geological time, of biological evolution and these clues give an insight into the origins of life on earth.

    • Soil science, sedimentology
      October 2015

      Visual Soil Evaluation

      Realizing Potential Crop Production with Minimum Environmental Impact

      by Edited by Bruce C. Ball, Lars J. Munkholm.

      Visual Soil Evaluation (VSE) provides land users and environmental authorities with the tools to assess soil quality for crop performance. This book describes the assessment of the various structural conditions of soil, especially after quality degradation such as compaction, erosion or organic matter loss. Covering a broad range of land types from abandoned peats to prime arable land, this useful handbook assesses yield potential across a range of scales. It also appraises the use of VSE in determining the potential of different land types for carbon storage, greenhouse gas emissions and nutrient leaching, and for diagnosing and rectifying erosion and compaction in soils.

    • Soil science, sedimentology
      October 2015

      Visual Soil Evaluation

      Realizing Potential Crop Production with Minimum Environmental Impact

      by Edited by Bruce C. Ball, Lars J. Munkholm.

      Visual Soil Evaluation (VSE) provides land users and environmental authorities with the tools to assess soil quality for crop performance. This book describes the assessment of the various structural conditions of soil, especially after quality degradation such as compaction, erosion or organic matter loss. Covering a broad range of land types from abandoned peats to prime arable land, this useful handbook assesses yield potential across a range of scales. It also appraises the use of VSE in determining the potential of different land types for carbon storage, greenhouse gas emissions and nutrient leaching, and for diagnosing and rectifying erosion and compaction in soils.

    • Soil science, sedimentology
      December 2014

      Soil Carbon

      Science, Management and Policy for Multiple Benefits

      by Edited by Steven A Banwart, Elke Noellemeyer, Eleanor Milne.

      This book brings together the essential evidence and policy opportunities regarding the global importance of soil carbon for sustaining Earth's life support system for humanity. Covering the science and policy background for this important natural resource, it describes land management options that improve soil carbon status and therefore increase the benefits that humans derive from the environment. Written by renowned global experts, it is the principal output from a SCOPE rapid assessment process project. <a href="http://www.cabi.org/openresources/45322">Read a chapter for free</a>

    • Soil science, sedimentology
      October 2011

      Architecture and Biology of Soils

      Life in Inner Space

      by Edited by Karl Ritz, Iain M Young.

      Soil is a fundamental and critical, yet often overlooked, component of terrestrial ecosystems. It is an extremely complex environment, supporting levels of diversity far greater than any ecosystem above ground. Bringing together existing knowledge in the areas of soil biology and physics, this book explores the key characteristics of soil spatial architecture, including how it develops and the consequences this has for life underground. The effects of soil's physical and biological components on their interactions and functions are used to demonstrate their roles in ecosystem dynamics.

    • Soil science, sedimentology
      October 2007

      Irrigation Water Pricing

      The Gap Between Theory and Practice

      by Edited by François Molle, Jeremy Berkoff

      Much hope has been vested in pricing as a means of helping to regulate and rationalize water management, notably in the irrigation sector. The pricing of water has often been applied universally, using general and ideological policies, and not considering regional environmental and economic differences. Almost fifteen years after the emphasis laid at the Dublin and Rio conferences on treating water as an economic good, a comprehensive review of how such policies have helped manage water resources an irrigation use is necessary.The case-studies presented here offer a re-assessment of current policies by evaluating their objectives and constraints and often demonstrating their failure by not considering the regional context. They will therefore contribute to avoiding costly and misplaced reforms and help design water policies that are based on a deeper understanding of the factors which eventually dictate their effectiveness.

    • Soil science, sedimentology
      July 2006

      Soil Erosion and Sediment Redistribution in River Catchments

      Measurement, Modelling and Management

      by Edited by Philip N Owens, Alison J Collins

      This book reviews the major achievements recently made in soil erosion and sediment redistribution research and management, and identifies future requirements. The book presents work from key players in river basin soil erosion and sediment redistribution from sources to sinks, field to riverbank, from academia to policy and industry. It examines the developments made in three themes - measurement, modelling and management - and covers a variety of scales (in both time and space) and geographical locations.

    • Soil science, sedimentology
      December 2003

      Managing Soil Quality

      Challenges in Modern Agriculture

      by Edited by Per Schjønning, Bent T Christensen, Susanne Elmholt

      In-depth treatments of the soil quality concept, its history, and its applicability in research and in developed and developing societiesAll 18 chapters are written by well-established experts from Europe, North America and AustraliaSoil quality is a concept that allows soil functions to be related to specific purposes. Managing soil quality takes a management oriented approach by identifying key issues in soil quality and management options to enhance the sustainability of modern agriculture. Topics covered include major plant nutrients (N, P, K), soil acidity, soil organic matter, soil biodiversity, soil compaction, erosion, pesticides and urban waste.

    • Soil science, sedimentology
      September 1995

      Grassland Nitrogen

      by David C Whitehead

      This books provides a comprehensive overview of grassland nitrogen incorporating information from crop science, soils and fertilizers, ruminant consumption and environmental aspects.The published information is reviewed on the various transformations of nitrogen in temperate grassland systems. These include those taking place in soils. The effects of soil, weather and management practices are discussed and considerable emphasis is placed on soil-plant-animal interactions. A second aim of the book is to describe the factors that influence the response of grassland to the application of fertilizer nitrogen, and how the optimum rate of application may be determined. In addition, nitrogen balances are described for different grassland systems, showing how the annual inputs and outputs vary greatly depending on sward type and management.The book is of interest to a wide readership, especially those engaged in research, teaching and advisory work, and students taking courses in agricultural and environmental sciences.

    • Geology & the lithosphere
      March 2016

      Characterization, Modeling, Monitoring, and Remediation of Fractured Rock

      by Committee on Subsurface Characterization, Modeling, Monitoring, and Remediation of Fractured Rock; Committee on Geological and Geotechnical Engineering; Board on Earth Sciences and Resources; Division on Earth and Life Studies; The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

      Fractured rock is the host or foundation for innumerable engineered structures related to energy, water, waste, and transportation. Characterizing, modeling, and monitoring fractured rock sites is critical to the functioning of those infrastructure, as well as to optimizing resource recovery and contaminant management. Characterization, Modeling, Monitoring, and Remediation of Fractured Rock examines the state of practice and state of art in the characterization of fractured rock and the chemical and biological processes related to subsurface contaminant fate and transport. This report examines new developments, knowledge, and approaches to engineering at fractured rock sites since the publication of the 1996 National Research Council report Rock Fractures and Fluid Flow: Contemporary Understanding and Fluid Flow. Fundamental understanding of the physical nature of fractured rock has changed little since 1996, but many new characterization tools have been developed, and there is now greater appreciation for the importance of chemical and biological processes that can occur in the fractured rock environment. The findings of Characterization, Modeling, Monitoring, and Remediation of Fractured Rock can be applied to all types of engineered infrastructure, but especially to engineered repositories for buried or stored waste and to fractured rock sites that have been contaminated as a result of past disposal or other practices. The recommendations of this report are intended to help the practitioner, researcher, and decision maker take a more interdisciplinary approach to engineering in the fractured rock environment. This report describes how existing tools -- some only recently developed -- can be used to increase the accuracy and reliability of engineering design and management given the interacting forces of nature. With an interdisciplinary approach, it is possible to conceptualize and model the fractured rock environment with acceptable levels of uncertainty and reliability, and to design systems that maximize remediation and long-term performance. Better scientific understanding could inform regulations, policies, and implementation guidelines related to infrastructure development and operations. The recommendations for research and applications to enhance practice of this book make it a valuable resource for students and practitioners in this field.

    • Soil science, sedimentology
      February 1986

      Soil Conservation

      Assessing the National Resources Inventory, Volume 1

      by Committee on Conservation Needs and Opportunities, Board on Agriculture, National Research Council

      This new volume is the first independent analysis of an important national data base, the National Resources Inventory. It cites potential uses of the NRI in controlling soil erosion; determining land use; deciding conservation treatment; classifying soils; and protecting groundwater quality. Methods for soil conservation activities, ranging from the ranking of the lands most susceptible to erosion to the measurement and prediction of both wind and water erosion, are recommended throughout the volume.

    • Soil science, sedimentology
      January 1986

      Soil Conservation

      An Assessment of the National Resources Inventory, Volume 2

      by Committee on Conservation Needs and Opportunities; National Research Council

      Written by the foremost authorities in the field, this volume brings together the technical papers from which Volume 1 is drawn. The 10 papers and discussion from a National Research Council symposium cover such topics as soil erosion classification, evaluating how soil erosion damages productivity, calculating soil erosion, understanding ephemeral gully erosion, wind erosion, and the impact of range erosion on land use.

    • Geology & the lithosphere
      January 1990

      The Role of Fluids in Crustal Processes

      by Geophysics Study Committee, National Research Council

      Water and other fluids play a vital role in the processes that shape the earth's crust, possibly even influencing earthquakes and volcanism. Fluids affect the movement of chemicals and heat in the crust, and they are the major factor in the formation of hydrothermal ore deposits. Yet, fluids have been overlooked in many geologic investigations. The Role of Fluids in Crustal Processes addresses this lack of attention with a survey of what experts know about the role of fluids in the Earth's crust--and what future research can reveal. The overview discusses factors that affect fluid movement and the coupled equations that represent energy and mass transport processes, chemical reactions, and the relation of fluids to stress distribution.

    • Geology & the lithosphere
      January 1992

      One Earth, One Future

      Our Changing Global Environment

      by by Cheryl Simon Silver with Ruth S. DeFries for the National Academy of Sciences

      Written for nonscientists, One Earth, One Future can help individuals understand the basic science behind changes in the global environment and the resulting policy implications that the population of the entire planet must face. The volume describes the earth as a unified system--exploring the interactions between the atmosphere, land, and water and the snowballing impact that human activity is having on the system--and presents perspectives on policies and programs that can both develop and protect our natural resources. One Earth, One Future discusses why such seemingly diverse issues as historical climate change, species diversity, and sea-level rise are part of a single picture--and how human activity is the critical element in that picture. The book concludes with practical examinations of economic, security, and development questions, with a view toward achieving improvements in quality of life without further environmental degradation. One Earth, One Future is must reading for anyone interested in the interrelationship of environmental matters and public policy issues.

    • Geology & the lithosphere
      February 1990

      Margins

      A Research Initiative for Interdisciplinary Studies of the Processes Attending Lithospheric Extension and Convergence

      by Continental Margins Committee, Ocean Studies Board, National Research Council

      Approximately 70 percent of the world's population is concentrated in the coastal borderlands, which geologists recognize to be the present continental margins. This new book on these continental margins provides a detailed account of a meeting which brought together specialists in marine and terrestrial geology, geochemistry, and geophysics. The workshop garnered widespread support and enthusiasm for a new direction in margins research focused on interdisciplinary studies of the fundamental processes of continental margin evolution. Scientific problems and solutions were identified for both divergent and convergent margins. Results of the workshop show that many of the fundamental plate interaction processes are common to all margins, whether formed by extension, contraction, or translation. This conclusion suggests a unified approach to margins research. A margins initiative has been proposed to follow up on the workshop results by developing science programs aimed at understanding the processes that control the initiation and evolution of continental margins.

    • Geology & the lithosphere
      January 1989

      North American Continent-Ocean Transects Program

      by U.S. Geodynamics Committee, Board on Earth Sciences and Resources, National Research Council

      This book discusses the results of the transects program, which involves compilations of maps and cross sections showing geological, geophysical, and geochemical data and interpretations along 23 transects from the continental craton to the oceanic lithosphere around North America. The book contains two sections, an overview and a set of recommendations for the program and synopses, findings, and problems associated with the 23 transects.

    • Geology & the lithosphere
      January 1993

      Solid-Earth Sciences and Society

      by Committee on the Status and Research Objectives in the Solid-Earth Sciences, National Research Council

      As environmental problems move upward on the public agenda, our knowledge of the earth's systems and how to sustain the habitability of our world becomes more critical. This volume reports on the state of earth science and outlines a research agenda, with priorities keyed to the real-world challenges facing human society. The product of four years of development with input from more than 200 earth-science specialists, the volume offers a wealth of historical background and current information on Plate tectonics, volcanism, and other heat-generated earth processes. Evolution of our global environment and of life itself, as revealed in the fossil record. Human exploitation of water, fossil fuels, and minerals. Interaction between human populations and the earth's surface, discussing the role we play in earth's systems and the dangers we face from natural hazards such as earthquakes and landslides. This volume offers a comprehensive look at how earth science is currently practiced and what should be done to train professionals and adequately equip them to find the answers necessary to manage more effectively the earth's systems. This well-organized and practical book will be of immediate interest to solid-earth scientists, researchers, and college and high school faculty, as well as policymakers in the environmental arena.

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