• Geography & the Environment
      March 2011

      Climate and Disaster Resilience in Cities

      by Rajib Shaw, Anshu Sharma, Rajib Shaw

      One of the emerging reasons for the current trend of increasing impacts of disasters is the unpredictability of natural hazard events coupled with the tendency of human settlements to move to vulnerable locations including coastal areas in search of economic gains. Urban areas are most affected due to concentration of habitat and resources. Whilst it is impossible to make resistant urban growth, resilience is becoming more widely accepted and urban systems must be resilient enough to cope with the climate related hazards. This book highlights the issues of resilience through regional, national, city and community-based studies. Contributions come from academia, city government networks, city managers, non-government organizations and international agencies like the World Bank and United Nations. Thus, the book reflects a unique aspect of multi-stakeholder perspective. It also highlights how to enhance actions at local levels, and how the plans can be implemented through multi-stakeholder collaboration. This is the first book to combine academic research and field practice on the urban risk reduction, especially focusing on the climate-related disasters in the Asian region.

    • Geography & the Environment
      December 2010

      Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction

      Issues and Challenges

      by Rajib Shaw, Juan Pulhin, Joy Pereira, Rajib Shaw

      The importance of Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) is increasing due, in part, to recent major disasters throughout the world. CCA and DRR are closely associated and there has been significant awareness at global and national levels to make collective focus on CCA and DRR. Although there are several books on CCA, this is the first systematic academic publication to highlight the linkages between CCA and DRR, CCA-DRR synergy and interactions. The book is divided into four parts: Part 1 focuses on the theory of CCA and DRR and its enabling environment; Part 2 focuses on governance, education and technology as the framework of CCA-DRR linkage; Part 3 focuses on different entry points with chapters on urban, coast, mountain, river and housing; and Part 4 focuses on regional perspective of CCA and DRR looking at developing nations, south Asia, ASEAN and Small Island Developing States. Key issues and challenges related to the CCA and DRR are highlighted throughout, mostly drawing lessons and experiences from the field practices. This book gives researchers and practitioners greater awareness on the current trend of research in the field.

    • Geography & the Environment
      November 2012

      Disaster by Design

      The Aral Sea and Its Lessons for Sustainability

      by Michael R. Edelstein, Astrid Cerny, Abror Gadaev

      Disaster by Design: The Aral Sea, Lessons for Sustainability addresses the impacts of the Aral Sea disaster. The virtual disappearance of what was the world's fourth largest inland body of water was neither natural nor accidental. It was the result of deliberate policy decisions. The sea's disappearance is hardly the entire disaster. Instead, we find an accumulation of cascading effects, beginning with the decision to grow cotton, reached remotely in Moscow that altered the farming practices surrounding the Aral Sea. Unsustainable choices resulted in soil salinization, water pollution and toxic blowing sands, impacting the entire bioregion and beyond. A remote island was used to test biological weapons. Uzbekistan, most notably Karakalpakstan, was the autonomous republic at the epicenter of the disaster. Sustainable prospects exist, including renewable energy, permaculture and strengthening the social fabric amidst poverty and ecological collapse. This volume of Research in Social Problems and Public Policy is essential reading for everyone concerned with averting environmental disaster and instead creating livable, sustainable communities. Disaster by Design is a clarion call and an insightful study of Central Asia today.

    • Geography & the Environment
      December 2012

      Ecosystem-Based Adaptation

      by Noralene Uy, Rajib Shaw, Rajib Shaw

      Ecosystems are often examined from a ecological perspective because of the importance of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Ecosystems of different types and scales are under increasing pressure due to natural and human induced changes. Climate change and the disasters it causes, are a major driver affecting ecosystems and services. Several studies have provided evidence that a healthy ecosystem helps in reducing the impacts of climate change and disasters. This book makes a case for ecosystem-based adaptation by arguing that ecosystems and its services are critical in the climate change and disaster risk reduction fields. Consequently, the monitoring and regulation of ecosystems need to be linked to a regular governance and institutional mechanism and be reflected in a more action-oriented agenda.

    • Geography & the Environment
      January 2012

      Enterprising Communities

      Grassroots Sustainability Innovations

      by Anna Davies, Liam Leonard

      This book provides an internationally grounded and critical review of grassroots sustainability enterprises, specifically focusing on the processes that lead to their formation, the governing context that shapes their evolution, the benefits they create and the challenges that they face in different contexts. This is the first internationally focused study of grassroots sustainability enterprises that covers such a range of environmental sectors. For the first time grassroots sustainability enterprises and their actions and impact receive comprehensive academic analysis from the perspective of their contribution towards more resilient development. The book begins by defining the term and placing it in context, looking at contemporary agendas in sustainability innovation and enterprise, and sustainability impacts and grassroots enterprises. It then examines a variety of grassroots sustainability enterprises such as low impact housing in the UK, eco-villages in Ireland, community gardening in Germany and turtle conservation in Costa Rica. It concludes by looking ahead to the future at governing frameworks for grassroots sustainability enterprises and smart green clean-tech economy.

    • Geography & the Environment
      March 2010

      Global Ecological Politics

      by Liam Leonard, John Barry

      "Advances in Ecopolitics Series" presents a collection of environmental alternatives worthy of consideration in light of the ongoing economic downturn which has accompanied the latest incarnation of unsustainable practices. Each publication discusses a significant element in the environmental theory which now represents an important aspect of sustainable living. The latest volume, "Global Ecological Politics", examines the range of environmental campaigns that are occurring across the planet. It showcases a selection of case studies on grassroots initiatives and activism in areas such as green economic alternatives, regional activism in defence of communities, alternative or utopian communities, green politics and ecotourism. This extensive array of ecological participation demonstrates that viable green alternatives are available in this current era of legitimation crisis across the formal political and economic sectors. "Global Ecological Politics" presents an important collection of articles for researchers, lecturers and academics in the socio-economic and political sector and is essential reading for those involved in all areas of environmentalism.

    • Humanities & Social Sciences
      December 2009

      Nature, Knowledge and Negation

      by Harry F. Dahms

      The first emphasis of the volume is on developments in the social theory of environmental issues, the environment, and the environmental crisis. The second emphasis is on the increasingly questionable possibility of shared knowledge at a time of increasing fragmentation of common frameworks, distraction from key issues, and dilution of the idea of objectivity. The thematic emphasis on environmental challenges and issues, includes one contribution on climate change, the resource crunch, and the global growth Imperative, along with critical responses by other experts in this field, and two contributions on the development of planetarian accountancy, and the ubiquity of risk in consumer societies. Further contributions address issues relating to the dialectic of selfhood, the aftermath of postmodernism, limitations inherent to feminist perspectives, the project of public sociology, the fortieth anniversary of Jurgen Habermas' classic, Knowledge and Human Interests, and the need for critical theory to rely on social research.

    • Geography & the Environment
      December 2013

      Risk and Conflicts

      Local Responses to Natural Disasters

      by Andreas Neef, Rajib Shaw

      Communities affected by natural disasters are often stigmatized as being passive with regard to disaster prevention, mitigation and adaptation, waiting only for government assistance in the aftermath of such events. However, many innovative community initiatives have been developed to address natural disasters, which are often characterized as "local responses". While scrutinizing the potential strength and comparative advantage of community-based disaster response, this book analyzes and illustrates how individuals, families and social groups in rural and urban communities perceive natural disasters, their underlying reasons and their effects on their livelihoods, and documents and analyzes the role of local responses to natural disasters and conflict. Key factors determining the degree of vulnerability and resilience of affected communities are also elicited. Several pivotal issues related to community-based disaster responses are addressed, such as the relationship between local and external knowledge in addressing disasters, the relevance of institutional and policy frameworks for community-based disaster response and the role of social capital and collective action.

    • Business, Economics & Law
      July 2011

      Social and Sustainable Entrepreneurship

      by G. Thomas Lumpkin, Jerome A. Katz, Jerome A. Katz, Tom Lumpkin

      This volume considers the timely issues of social and sustainable entrepreneurship. The chapters consider in depth the issues, problems, contexts, and processes that make entrepreneurial enterprises more social and/or sustainable. Top researchers from a diverse set of perspectives have contributed their latest research on a variety of topics such as the role of entrepreneurial bricolage in generating innovations in a social context (Gundry, Kickul, Griffins, and Bacq) and emerging themes in social entrepreneurship education (Thiru). Several chapters tackle lingering definitional issues such as the distinctions between social, sustainable, and environmental entrepreneurship (Dean, Sarason, and Neenan), or propose social entrepreneurship research agendas based on key research questions found in prior studies (Gras, Mosakowski, and Lumpkin). There are brief histories of social change and their entrepreneurial implications (Kucher and Summers), and frameworks for studying different types of social and sustainable entrepreneurship (Lichtenstein). Each of the chapters, in its own way, addresses the progress and promise of social and sustainable entrepreneurship as a future research domain of growing interest and importance.

    • Geography & the Environment
      December 2013

      Water Insecurity

      A Social Dilemma

      by M. A. Abedin, Umma Habiba, Rajib Shaw

      It has been estimated that globally, 1.2 billion people live with acute shortage of water. Water scarcity, particularly in south and south-east Asian countries, is well known. However, the social dilemmas and insecurities related to water issues are often less discussed. In the case of south and south-east Asia, the distribution of available water amongst various casts and creeds has been determined through several social hierarchies. Hence, water forms a critical socio-political issue, with a multi-faced dimension. This book critically analyses the associated social issues of increasing water scarcity in countries such as India. It documents the social impacts and predicament of water scarcity. The book will be of prime interest to researchers, policy makers and practitioners in the fields of development and environment, as well as water planners, and it will be a useful reference guide for future research in the field of water scarcity and risk management. Topics analysed include arsenic contamination, the impact of salinity on livelihood and mitigation, and drought resilience, adaptation and policy. The book concludes by providing lessons, challenges and future perspectives of water insecurity.

    • Geography & the Environment
      August 1994

      Advances in Human Ecology

      by Lee Freese

      Part of a series which covers advances and progress in the field of human ecology, this volume discusses such topics as: the world around us and how we make it; the political economy of environmental problems and policies; and, the assembling of human populations.

    • Geography & the Environment
      December 2003

      The City as an Entertainment Machine

      by Terry Nichols Clark

      People both live and work in cities. And where they choose to live shifts where and how they work. Amenities enter as enticements to bring new residents or tourists to a city. Amenities have thus become new public concerns for many cities in the US and much of Northern Europe. Old ways of thinking, old paradigms - such as "location, location, location" and "land, labour, capital, and management generate economic development" - are too simple. So is "human capital drives development". To these earlier questions, we add: "how do amenities and related consumption attract talented people, who in turn drive the classic processes which make cities grow?" This new question is critical for policy makers. Urban public officials, business, and nonprofit leaders are using culture, entertainment, and urban amenities to (seek to) enhance their locations - for present and future residents, tourists, conventioneers, and shoppers. This volume explores how consumption and entertainment change cities. But it reverses the "normal" causal process. That is, many chapters analyse how consumption and entertainment drive urban development, not vice versa. It details the impacts of opera, used bookstores, brew pubs, bicycle events, Starbucks' coffee shops, gay residents and other factors on changes in jobs, population, inventions, and more. It interprets these processes by showing how they add new insights from economics, sociology, political science, public policy, and geography. Considerable evidence is presented about how consumption, amenities, and culture drive urban policy - by encouraging people to move to or from different cities and regions. The book also explores how different amenities attract the innovative persons who are catalysts in making the modern economy and high tech hum.

    • Humanities & Social Sciences
      March 2007

      Cultures of Contamination

      Legacies of Pollution in Russia and the US

      by Michael Edelstein, PhD, Maria Tysiachniouk, Lyudmila V. Smirnova

      This volume ponders the cultures that generated the bulk of our global contamination legacy. Insight is sought into its creation and an understanding of differences in how it is being addressed. Hopefully the illumination of the problem will contribute to a better understanding of the constraining conditions and will help guide us in meeting the twin challenges created by the legacy of contamination: how to stop it and how to address what we already have done. Section one focuses on the psycho-social dynamics of chemical contamination. Section two deals with nuclear events, both accidents, but also the closed cities and closed society needed to produce a nuclear context. Section 3 addresses mitigations, dominated by 4 out of 5 chapters addressing Russia. And section four provides perspectives, comparative pieces addressing secrecy in nuclear programs, distorted risk communication in the aftermath of the World Trade Center Disaster, environmental altruism and in core social response to environmental challenges. It examines the cultures most responsible for global contamination. It adopts a global and practical perspective, with case examples from the United States and Russia. It seeks to stop contaminations from taking place in the future and positively address those from the past. This book series is available electronically at website.

    • Geography & the Environment
      August 2006

      Environmental Accounting

      Commitment or Propaganda

      by Martin Freedman, Bikki Jaggi

      In the two years since the publication of the last volume of this series, the planet has witnessed some devastating environmental events some of which can be attributed to human causes. However, we have also seen the world uniting (except mainly for the United States and Australia) to reduce greenhouse gases and hopefully slowdown global warming. Recognizing that sustainable development is a way that can lead to well being of the society in the long run, most of the world has therefore agreed to ratify the Kyoto Protocol. There is hope that the USA and other industrialized countries will ratify the Protocol and all countries including China and India, which are exempt from emission cuts, will make efforts to reduce pollution emissions beyond the limit set by the Protocol. Economic growth in China and India is resulting in a rapid increase in the greenhouse gas emissions in those countries. It is especially important that plants in India and China use newer pollution technologies in generating electricity to meet their energy needs. Their continued participation in the dialogue is important to control pollution emissions beyond the Kyoto Protocol. Environmental issues are multi-faceted and they are being debated in several disciplines. These issues may be technical, legal, economical, measurement, managerial, or ethical in nature, and different disciplines focus on the issues of interest to them. Accounting is primarily concerned with measurement of pollution-related performance and cost, and reporting of this information to stakeholders. Consistent with the goals of Sarbanes-Oxley Act, it is important that accounting regains its lost credibility and provides reliable pollution-related information to the stakeholders so that they evaluate their risk properly. This volume contains papers which deal with some of the important issues related to pollution information and should be of interest to investors, management, regulators and other individuals interested in environmental accounting. Several papers contained in this volume deal with disclosure of environmental information. Some papers examine what motivates environmental disclosures, whereas other examine whether environmental reporting reflects any real commitment or it is merely a propaganda ploy. While some firms may be genuinely interested in reporting their environmental performance correctly, others may use it as a tool to look good. Another paper in this issue shows that an alignment of management commitment, strategic planning and proactive managerial actions result in better environmental performance and this leads to better return on investment. Though there is no uniform format for reporting environmental information, the last paper in this issue provides discussion on integrating the living systems theory with the accounting disclosure model. In brief, this issue contains several interesting articles dealing with different aspects of environmental disclosures. It addresses the Kyoto Protocol on an international level, discusses how an accountant measures pollution-related performance and cost, and investigates the motive behind disclosure of environmental information.

    • Humanities & Social Sciences
      November 2006

      Long-Term Management of Contaminated Sites

      by Thomas M. Leschine

      Even today, many people think of 'social problems' as involving poor and powerless individuals in society. "Research in Social Problems and Public Policy" seeks to improve the balance by adding a focus on important and powerful institutions. Such organizations often play key roles in managing, and mismanaging, the ways in which some of today's most important social problems are handled by the public policy system. The series presents papers that discuss policy sciences, public policy analysis and public management. This volume addresses operations and design issues for government organizations.

    • Geography & the Environment
      December 2005

      Perspectives on Climate Change

      Science, Economics, Politics, Ethics

      by Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, Richard B. Howarth

      This book explores the interplay between science, economics, politics, and ethics in understanding the challenge that climate change poses to the international community. A central theme is that climate change involves core issues of scientific uncertainty and intergenerational fairness that must be accounted for in the design and implementation of policy responses. Drawing together contributions from leading scholars in a variety of relevant disciplines, this volume provides a synthetic approach to this important topic that should prove valuable to a variety of readers. This series focuses on the interface between geosystems, biosystems, and the political economy. The volumes integrate physical, natural, and social sciences with economics. It encompasses the atomistic and mechanistic epistemology of modern economic analysis.

    • Humanities & Social Sciences
      July 1994

      Research in Urban Policy

      An International Perspective : European Consortium for Political Research Workshop on Local and Regional Bureaucracies in Western Europe : Selected Papers

      by Terry Nichols Clark

      This annual publication focuses on four interrelated urban processes: population and employment location; political leadership and policy outputs; bureaucratic processes and service delivery; and citizen preferences and participatory activities.

    • Humanities & Social Sciences
      December 2004

      Socioeconomic Aspects of Human Behavioral Ecology

      by M. Alvard

      As a field, anthropology brings an explicit evolutionary approach to the study of human behavior. Each of anthropology's four main subfields - sociocultural, biological, archaeology, and linguistic anthropology - acknowledges that Homo sapiens has a long evolutionary history that must be acknowledged if one is to know what it means to be a human being (What is Anthropology?). The papers in this volume embody the view of anthropology explicit in the above statement. Behavioral ecology explains human behavior through the application of evolutionary theory in ecological context. It focuses on how behavior is influenced by the constraints of reproduction and resources acquisition. As a result, its purview is a wide swath of anthropology, especially economic anthropology. Human behavior varies through the life course, and humans make choices or exhibit behavioral variation depending on the costs, benefits, and constraints of local socioeconomic contexts. Pan-human conscious and unconscious processes generate these decisions, because over evolutionary time scales they produced, on average, behavior that increased the relative reproductive success of their bearers. Behavioral ecology examines these adaptive behavioral responses to local conditions. The volumes papers demonstrate behavioral ecology's maturation as a subfield of anthropology. They demonstrate the breadth of problems that can be gainfully addressed within the paradigm and the richness of specific hypotheses and data that this perspective can generate. The papers also show how behavioral ecology conceptually integrates the core of biological anthropology with the other subdisciplines by providing a common framework for investigating and understanding basic economic questions.

    • Geography & the Environment
      November 2017

      Environmental Criminology

      Spatial Analysis and Regional Issues

      by Liam Leonard

      Environmental Criminology: Spatial Analysis and Regional Issues combines various academic perspectives to provide a multi-disciplinary approach to examining environmental criminology. Using sociological, criminological, anthropological, historical and media analysis, this volume examines local and regional issues in crime. The interdisciplinary nature of the collection makes the book ideal for students or researchers who wish to expand their approach to environmental criminology.

    • Humanities & Social Sciences
      July 2017

      Transforming the Rural

      Global Processes and Local Futures

      by Terry Marsden, Mara Miele, Vaughan Higgins, Hilde Bjørkhaug, Monica Truninger

      In recent decades, globalization has transformed rural societies and economies across the world. Much has been written by social scientists about the actors and structures underpinning these transformations and the effects on particular social groups, organizations and industries. Yet, to date much less attention has been given to the specific global processes that are fundamental to contemporary rural change. Rural Change and Global Processes provides a systematic analysis of the key global processes transforming rural spaces in the early 21st century – financialization; standardization; consumption, and commodification. Through detailed case studies, the book examines why these processes are important, how they work in practice, and the challenges they raise as well as opportunities created. The book will be of particular relevance to researchers, graduate students, and policy-makers interested in the implications of global processes for rural people and livelihoods.

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