One of the inevitable consequences of ageing is the progressive widening of pulse pressure resulting from stiffening of large arteries. While a large body of literature has been devoted to understanding blood pressure, a parameter proven to be predictive of cardiovascular health, very few books are devoted to explaining arterial stiffening, how it worsens, and why is it important for physicians to consider arterial stiffening when treating resistant hypertension. This book fills this gap. The fundamental purpose of this book is to systematically explain the pathophysiology behind arterial stiffness, to relate arterial stiffness with high blood pressure, and also to draw insights into the management of arterial stiffness from the current clinical and experimental research evidence in the field.Set out systematically, the book provides a readable and concise introduction to arterial stiffness and progressively moves into explaining more complex theoretical and experimental developments in the area. The book is designed such that each chapter largely answers a particular scientific question – covering the most up-to-date research information, investigations, and summaries and conclusions relating to the initial question. Future directions and research opportunities in the field are also covered.The book covers the most recent in vivo assessments of aortic stiffness in different phenotypes by measuring local haemodynamic parameters, pulse wave velocity, and pulse pressure amplification. Furthermore, the book relates ex vivo arterial structural properties and explains how they are relevant to arterial stiffness measurement, while also analysing recent pharmacological treatments of hypertension and assessing if these treatments have any effect on arterial stiffness in addition to treating blood pressure alone. Finally, the text offers a summary and appraisal of the methodologies used in experimental quantification of arterial stiffness.