• Financial crises & disasters

      The Origin of Financial Crises

      Central Banks, Credit Bubbles and the Efficient Market Fallacy

      by George Cooper

      'The Origin of Financial Crises' provides a compelling analysis of the forces behind the recent economic crisis. In a series of disarmingly simple arguments George Cooper challenges the core principles of today's economic orthodoxy, explaining why financial markets do not obey the efficient market principles but are instead inherently unstable and habitually crisis prone.First published in the summer of 2008 in the midst of the crisis, the author accurately pinpointed the fundamental problems in policy and economic theory that led to the banking crisis. Now updated to reflect the massive upheavals since then and providing even more forthright opinions, the book is essential reading for anyone looking to find the root cause of our current financial situation.The book describes the evolution of our modern monetary system, explaining along the way how financial instability emerged and why this instability required the development of central banking. Cooper makes the point that misguided faith in the power of free markets has led some central banks to neglect their core role of managing the financial system and instead caused them to pursue policies promoting a series of ever more violent boom-bust cycles. 'The Origin of Financial Crises' calls for a radical shift in central bank strategy, the abandonment of inflation targeting and a paradigm shift in our attitude to economic policy.The reader will also learn about the fundamentals of inflation and discover what policy makers can learn from the designers of the Eurofighter jet and how an obscure paper on steam engines, written in 1868, shows us how to avoid repeating recent monetary policy mistakes.Uniquely, 'The Origin of Financial Crises' presents tangible policy proposals aimed at helping break out of the seemingly endless procession of damaging boom-bust cycles.

    • Economic theory & philosophy

      The Myth of the Rational Market

      A History of Risk, Reward, and Delusion On Wall Street

      by Justin Fox

      Chronicling the rise and fall of the efficient market theory and the century-long making of the modern financial industry, Justin Fox's "The Myth of the Rational Market" is as much an intellectual whodunit as a cultural history of the perils and possibilities of risk. The book brings to life the people and ideas that forged modern finance and investing, from the formative days of Wall Street through the Great Depression and into the financial calamity of today. It's a tale that features professors who made and lost fortunes, battled fiercely over ideas, beat the house in blackjack, wrote bestselling books, and played major roles on the world stage. It's also a tale of Wall Street's evolution, the power of the market to generate wealth and wreak havoc, and free market capitalism's war with itself. The efficient market hypothesis - long part of academic folklore but codified in the 1960s at the University of Chicago - has evolved into a powerful myth. It has been the maker and loser of fortunes, the driver of trillions of dollars, the inspiration for index funds and vast new derivatives markets, and the guidepost for thousands of careers. The theory holds that the market is always right, and that the decisions of millions of rational investors, all acting on information to outsmart one another, always provide the best judge of a stock's value. That myth is crumbling.Celebrated journalist and columnist Fox introduces a new wave of economists and scholars who no longer teach that investors are rational or that the markets are always right. Many of them now agree with Yale professor Robert Shiller that the efficient markets theory "represents one of the most remarkable errors in the history of economic thought." Today the theory has given way to counterintuitive hypotheses about human behavior, psychological models of decision making, and the irrationality of the markets. Investors overreact, underreact, and make irrational decisions based on imperfect data. In his landmark treatment of the history of the world's markets, Fox uncovers the new ideas that may come to drive the market in the century ahead.

    • Economic history

      Restoring Confidence in the Financial System

      See-through Leverage: A Powerful New Tool for Revealing and Managing Risk

      by Sean Tully

      'Restoring Confidence In The Financial System' is a ground-breaking book in which a top mathematician, who is also one of the City of London's most experienced traders, and an experienced City banker explore how confidence in the global financial system was destroyed by the current banking crisis. Drawing on his firsthand experience of steering the trading floor at a major European bank, Sean Tully, together with Richard Bassett, analyses the steps that led up to the crisis and pinpoint precisely one of the main causes of the lending bubble with whose consequences we are all now living.The authors explain the intricacies of the regulatory framework of Basel I and Basel II, the two landmark events in banking regulation which inadvertently laid the foundation for the current crisis. The authors then show how a radical and new but easily understood measure of risk, revealed here for the first time, can prevent another such bubble from ever happening again. This new measure, called see-through leverage or STL, can be used to restore faith in the financial system by allowing a rapid means of differentiating between potentially toxic and healthy 'AAA'-rated securities. Armed with STL, investors, rating agencies and regulators alike can cut through the complexity of economic modeling to the nub of the problem: leverage.'Restoring Confidence In The Financial System' is a vital book for the international business community. In a globally interconnected world, no one can claim to be untouched by the crisis. How could bankers have got their sums so wrong? How could regulators and politicians have failed to see the storm coming? Above all, how can confidence be restored to get the wheels of the global finance machine working again? This book has the solution.

    • Economics

      The Fall of Northern Rock

      An Insider's Story of Britain's Biggest Banking Disaster

      by Brian Walters

      Some of the most memorable images of 2007 - if not of the decade - are those of people queuing outside branches of Northern Rock to withdraw their money. They are images from another age, or from another country, surely this could not have happened in the UK in the twenty-first century!But this is not how Brian Walters - author of 'The Fall of Northern Rock' - remembers the bank. He, and likely many other employees, remember it as a good place to work, and is proud of its success and its role as the largest private sector employer in the north-east of England.This book is his inside story of the rise of Northern Rock, becoming one of the most respected and envied financial institutions in the UK, and its subsequent spectacular collapse. The book tells of his personal experiences at Northern Rock before, during and after the crisis, and comments on the events that unfolded around him and what impact they had on the business and the people within it. This first-hand account also explores the causes of the crisis and whether it could have been avoided.'The Fall of Northern Rock' is essential reading for anyone wanting to understand the story behind the first run on a British bank since 1866.

    • Financial crises & disasters

      The Origin of Financial Crises

      Central Banks, Credit Bubbles and the Efficient Market Fallacy

      by George Cooper

      'The Origin of Financial Crises' provides a compelling analysis of the forces behind the recent economic crisis. In a series of disarmingly simple arguments George Cooper challenges the core principles of today's economic orthodoxy, explaining why financial markets do not obey the efficient market principles but are instead inherently unstable and habitually crisis prone.First published in the summer of 2008 in the midst of the crisis, the author accurately pinpointed the fundamental problems in policy and economic theory that led to the banking crisis. Now updated to reflect the massive upheavals since then and providing even more forthright opinions, the book is essential reading for anyone looking to find the root cause of our current financial situation.The book describes the evolution of our modern monetary system, explaining along the way how financial instability emerged and why this instability required the development of central banking. Cooper makes the point that misguided faith in the power of free markets has led some central banks to neglect their core role of managing the financial system and instead caused them to pursue policies promoting a series of ever more violent boom-bust cycles. 'The Origin of Financial Crises' calls for a radical shift in central bank strategy, the abandonment of inflation targeting and a paradigm shift in our attitude to economic policy.The reader will also learn about the fundamentals of inflation and discover what policy makers can learn from the designers of the Eurofighter jet and how an obscure paper on steam engines, written in 1868, shows us how to avoid repeating recent monetary policy mistakes.Uniquely, 'The Origin of Financial Crises' presents tangible policy proposals aimed at helping break out of the seemingly endless procession of damaging boom-bust cycles.

    • Financial crises & disasters

      The Origin of Financial Crises

      Central Banks, Credit Bubbles and the Efficient Market Fallacy

      by George Cooper

      The Origin of Financial Crises provides a compelling analysis of the forces behind today's economic crisis. In a series of disarmingly simple arguments George Cooper challenges the core principles of today's economic orthodoxy, explaining why financial markets do not obey the efficient market principles described in today's economic textbooks but are instead inherently unstable and habitually crisis prone.The author describes the evolution of our modern monetary system, explaining along the way how financial instability emerged and why this instability required the development of central banking. Cooper claims that misguided faith in the power of free markets has led some central banks to neglect their core role of managing the financial system and instead caused them to pursue policies which promote a series of ever more violent boom-bust cycles. The Origin of Financial Crises calls for a radical shift in central bank strategy the abandonment of inflation targeting and a paradigm shift in our attitude to economic policy.Along the way the reader will learn about the fundamentals of inflation and discover what policy makers can learn from the designers of the Eurofighter jet. They will also learn how an obscure paper on steam engines, written in 1868, by the inventor of colour photography shows us how to avoid repeating recent monetary policy mistakes.Uniquely, The Origin of Financial Crises presents tangible policy proposals aimed at helping break out of the seemingly endless procession of damaging boom-bust cycles.

    • Financial crises & disasters

      Petromania

      Black Gold, Paper Barrels and Oil Price Bubbles

      by Daniel O'Sullivan

      The spike in the oil price to almost $150 per barrel in summer 2008 was the last great excess of the crazed noughties bull markets, staged even as stock markets crumbled worldwide. Contrary to entrenched establishment opinion still embraced by many, 'Petromania' proves this oil price blowout was a classic speculative bubble, but driven primarily by new modes of financial speculation.Demolishing widespread, oft-repeated but incorrect arguments that such trade in paper barrels cannot move oil prices, 'Petromania' details how this financialisation of the oil markets meshed with other trends to create a moment that saw investment banks and hedge funds collectively wield more power over the price of black gold than OPEC or any multinational oil company. It also shows how regulatory blindness to the 'dark matter' of modern finance caused so many to confuse fantasy with reality for so long.'Petromania' matters not just because fortunes were won and lost in oil's dizzying ascent and crash, but because this bubble spelled misery for ordinary people worldwide, destabilised developing world governments, and delayed interest rate cuts desperately needed to address the ongoing global recession. 'Petromania' matters because while all eyes are on the crippled banking system, we risk ignoring valuable lessons about twenty-first century markets from this other great boom-and-bust - even as the forces that blew the bubble are once again at work.And 'Petromania', this tale of black gold, dark matter and paper barrels, is written by one of the few commentators who correctly called the bubble before it burst.

    • Business, Economics & Law
      April 2014

      The European debt crisis

      The Greek case

      by Costas Simitis, Dimitris Papadimitriou, Jeffrey Richards, Simon Bulmer, Andrew Geddes, Peter Humphreys

      In this book, former Greek Prime Minister Costas Simitis examines the European debt crisis with particular reference to the case of Greece. Greece was the first Eurozone country to face an enormous deficit, which reached 15% of GDP in 2009. As the Greek crisis unfolded, other Eurozone countries displayed identical symptoms, albeit in varying degrees of severity. From a strictly Greek predicament the debt crisis quickly turned into a problem for the European Union as a whole. This first English language translation investigates the causes of this spillover and chronicles the policy responses to combat it. It also discusses Greece's troubled political economy, the country's difficulties in adjusting to the demands of its creditors and the vehement social and political reactions to the policy of austerity. Through his comprehensive and authoritative analysis, Simitis provides valuable insights into the crucial interconnection between Greece's own economic troubles and the wider European search for macroeconomic stability and sustainable economic growth. As such, the book appeals well beyond those with a narrow academic interest in Greece. This is very much a discussion about the future of the Eurozone and the European Union as a whole. ;

    • Business, Economics & Law
      April 2014

      The European debt crisis

      The Greek case

      by Costas Simitis, Dimitris Papadimitriou, Jeffrey Richards, Simon Bulmer, Andrew Geddes, Peter Humphreys

      In this book, former Greek Prime Minister Costas Simitis examines the European debt crisis with particular reference to the case of Greece. Greece was the first Eurozone country to face an enormous deficit, which reached 15% of GDP in 2009. As the Greek crisis unfolded, other Eurozone countries displayed identical symptoms, albeit in varying degrees of severity. From a strictly Greek predicament the debt crisis quickly turned into a problem for the European Union as a whole. This first English language translation investigates the causes of this spillover and chronicles the policy responses to combat it. It also discusses Greece's troubled political economy, the country's difficulties in adjusting to the demands of its creditors and the vehement social and political reactions to the policy of austerity. Through his comprehensive and authoritative analysis, Simitis provides valuable insights into the crucial interconnection between Greece's own economic troubles and the wider European search for macroeconomic stability and sustainable economic growth. As such, the book appeals well beyond those with a narrow academic interest in Greece. This is very much a discussion about the future of the Eurozone and the European Union as a whole. ;

    • Financial crises & disasters
      December 2011

      Food and Financial Crises in Sub-Saharan Africa

      Origins, Impacts and Policy Implications

      by Edited by David R Lee, Muna B Ndulo.

      Dramatic increases in food prices, as witnessed on a global scale in recent years, threaten the food security of hundreds of millions of the rural poor in Sub-Saharan Africa alone. This book focuses on recent food and financial crises as they have affected Africa, illustrating the problems using country case studies, that cover their origins, effects on agriculture and rural poverty, their underlying factors and making recommendations as to how such crises could best be addressed in the future.

    • International economics
      March 2014

      The European Debt Crisis

      Causes, Consequences, Measures and Remedies

      by Editor(s): Ali Ari

      The recent global financial crisis is considered to be the most severe crisis which has led to a synchronised recession since the Great Depression in the 1930s. Europe is the most affected region in the world as a result of this crisis, and, as such, the sovereign debt crisis remains the most important issue in the Eurozone and threatens the future of the EU.This book provides answers, from both theoretical and empirical perspectives, to the following questions: What caused the global and European debt crises? What are the consequences of these crises? Why, despite the implementation of several policy measures, are these crises still affecting the world economy? What are the solutions to end the on-going crisis situation in the Eurozone? How can future crisis episodes in the world economy be prevented?Eleven quality papers from both academics and professionals are included in this volume, each of which provides a significant source, reference, and teaching supplement for researchers, policymakers and advanced graduate students. In addition, the papers collected here will also provide supplementary readings for advanced courses for graduate students in economics and European studies.

    • Archaeology
      January 2015

      The Protection of Archaeological Heritage in Times of Economic Crisis

      by Editor(s): Elena Korka

      This volume brings together the proceedings of the conference “From past experience to new approaches and synergies: The future of protection management for archaeological heritage in times of economic crisis”, held in the new Acropolis Museum in Athens in 2012. The conference was organised by the Hellenic National Committee of the International Scientific Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) and the International Scientific Committee on Archaeological Heritage Management (ICAHM) ,with the participation of United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property (ICCROM), the International Council of Museums (ICOM) and the International Committee on Risk Preparedness (ICORP). Special interest at the conference was directed to the Mediterranean region, as the area currently faces a variety of serious man-made and natural disasters.This book offers a collection of papers presented at the conference which examine existing experiences in various parts of the world, in order to offer solutions and new ways of managing the protection of cultural heritage, as well as sustaining the preservation of archaeological remains in times of economic crisis, which represents a major threat facing archaeological heritage worldwide. The current economic crisis has had a significant impact on various sectors of archaeological heritage management, and has affected the majority of tangible and intangible cultural assets.In this framework, some of the main themes that are addressed in this volume include: environmental harmonization; management and best practices in sustainability; management action plans; risk mitigation and confrontation; research in conservation; preservation and technologies; shelter protection; restoration, coordination and site use; illicit excavations and trafficking; protection of collections and movable finds; preservation of intangible heritage at sites and monuments; and heritage and the economy. The book offers useful documentation for maintaining high standards in the field of archaeological heritage, while searching for new ground for synergies and fresh initiatives, in order to confront the new challenges archaeology is currently facing, such as the economic crisis, a factor which is closely connected to the development of society and the sustainability of cultural property.

    • Political economy
      May 2013

      Reflections on the Greek Sovereign Debt Crisis

      The EU Institutional Framework, Economic Adjustment in an Extensive Shadow Economy

      by Editor(s): Aristidis Bitzenis, Ioannis Papadopoulos and Vasileios A. Vlachos

      The euro was generally considered a success in its first decade. Nevertheless, the “unanticipated” financial crisis in the summer of 2007 has developed gradually into the worst global economic crisis in post-war economic history and a sovereign debt crisis, calling into question the endurance of positive externalities under the current form of European economic integration. The experience of double-dip recessions in the core of the euro-area and the occurrence of a deflationary spiral in its southern periphery brings into question the wisdom of fiscal consolidation via austerity in the adjustment programmes adopted to exit the crisis. They also put into doubt the adequacy and efficiency of the European Economic and Monetary Union’s core elements, its political instruments and macroeconomic assumptions, as can be seen in the role of the Stability and Growth Pact and the stance of the European Central Bank. The title of this collective volume refers to the country where the European sovereign debt crisis began, while its contents concentrate on the extent to which this crisis should be a national or a European concern. Moreover, the focus on Greece stimulates discussion about the neglected factor of the shadow economy and the potential to boost government revenue through its successful transfer to the formal economy. The chapters address the inefficiencies of both euro-area institutions and policies adopted to exit the current predicament. Experts from several disciplines review the literature and critically evaluate the existence of issues such as contagion effects, domino effects, deflationary spirals, institutional efficiency and the reality of the option to exit the euro-area.

    • Christianity
      February 2016

      God and the Financial Crisis

      Essays on Faith, Economics, and Politics in the Wake of the Great Recession

      by Editor(s): Gary D. Badcock

      A fundamental belief in personal liberty and in the ability of free markets to realise the good lies at the heart of the neoliberal economic orthodoxy that has now shaped public policy for a generation. Confidence in orthodox economics has, however, been badly shaken by the financial crisis of 2008 and, in the years following, by the effects of the Great Recession. The era of casino banking was not only an era of de-industrialisation and under-employment, but also of iniquitous tax avoidance schemes, and of grotesquely inflated levels of social inequality. Such factors, we now realise, have reduced the life-prospects of millions of our fellow-citizens. This interdisciplinary volume of essays, with wide-ranging contributions by theologians and social scientists, explores the theological, economic, and moral implications of these developments. Its central claim is that neoliberalism’s failure to appreciate the limitations of its fiduciary commitments contributed massively to the economic crisis. A more honest appraisal of the relation between the language of belief and the sphere of economic behaviour is therefore required. This must also result in appropriate policy changes, to harness the power of the economy to serve a more generous vision of the human good.

    • Business, Economics & Law
      February 2013

      Explaining Financial Scandals

      Corporate Governance, Structured Finance and the Enlightened Sovereign Control Paradigm

      by Author(s): Vincenzo Bavoso

      The explosion of the global financial crisis in 2007–08 reignited the urgency to reflect on the origins and causes of financial collapses. As the events in the above period triggered an economic meltdown that is still ongoing, comparisons with the Great Crash of 1929 started to abound. In particular, the externalities that a broad spectrum of societal groups had to bear as a consequence of various banking failures highlighted the necessity of a more inclusive and balanced regulation of firms whose activities impact on a wide range of stakeholders.The book is centred on the proposal of a paradigm, the “enlightened sovereign control”, that provides a theoretical, institutional and substantive framework as a response to the legal issues analysed in the book. These stem primarily from the analysis of two sequences of events (the 2001–03 wave of “accounting frauds” and the 2007–08 global crisis) which represent the background upon which modern financial scandals are explained. This is done by highlighting a number of common denominators emerging from the case studies (Enron and Parmalat, Northern Rock and Lehman Brothers) which all led to financial instability and scandals and illustrated the legal issues identified in the book. The research is grounded on the initial recognition of theoretical themes in the field of corporate and financial law, which eventually link with the more practical events examined.Through this multifaceted approach, the book contends that the occurrence of financial crises during the last decade is essentially rooted in two main problems: a corporate governance one, represented by the lack of effective control systems within large public firms; and a corporate finance one identified with the excesses of financial innovation and related abuses of capital market finance. Research conducted in this book ultimately seeks to contribute to current debates in the areas of corporate and financial law, through the proposals of the “enlightened sovereign control” paradigm.

    • Financial crises & disasters
      September 2012

      The Subprime Crisis and Its Impact on Financial and Managerial Environments

      An Unequal Repercussion at European Level

      by Editor(s): Elisabeth Paulet

      History has shown us the role that financial and banking crises have had in economic transformation. The last crisis in 2008 was particularly significant because of its extent and its effect worldwide. Two aspects hold equal importance. Firstly, governance is a key concept to be clearly defined and enforced, especially within the EU. Both entrepreneurial and financial players must measure the impact of their various actions (transparency in decision-making processes, strategic choices to achieve profit, etc.), maintaining their market position while preserving the social positioning of all partners. Secondly, from a more technical point of view, the relevance of mathematical and quantitative methods should be discussed in order to evaluate asset performance. Securitization has always been a tool used to increase financial institutions’ profit margins but it cannot become their primary goal. The error does not come from the use of this technique but from its misuse at international level.This book aims to provide the reader with a broad discussion of the financial impacts and consequences arising from the last subprime crisis. By means of an international and European analysis, the different contributors intend to stress the relevance of a multi-national solution guaranteeing the stability of the international financial and banking system.

    • Business, Economics & Law
      December 2018

      Why the Conventional Wisdom about the 2008 Financial Crisis is Still Wrong

      Ten Years Later

      by Author(s): Paul D. Mueller

      Much of what has been heard, read, or taught about the 2008 financial crisis is incorrect. It was not caused by free market capitalism run amok. The crisis was not created by deregulatory zeal. It wasn’t primarily due to greed on Wall Street. The crisis was not simply created by people’s “irrational exuberance” or “animal spirits.” Perhaps most importantly, it did not require bailouts and thousands of pages of new regulations to fix. Instead, it came about because of significant market distortions created by government subsidies, misregulation, and perverse incentives.The conventional wisdom blames unbridled markets for mortgage fraud, imprudent risks, and extreme leverage in financial institutions. Policy makers told us that the failure of Lehman Brothers, and the near failure of American International Group and many large banks, would have resulted in catastrophic decline and perhaps another Great Depression. After the crisis, thousands of pages of new regulations were written to limit the types of risk banks can take and the kinds of investments they can make so that a financial crisis of this magnitude can’t happen again. But what if this conventional wisdom was wrong?If the problem wasn’t unregulated, unrestrained markets leading to fraud and excessive risk-taking, if instead it was perverted incentives and distorted market signals due to numerous regulations and mandates in the first place, then the thousands of new pages of regulations haven’t solved the fundamental problem. In fact, they have made it worse. This book shows that it is time to reassess the conventional wisdom. Perhaps there is still time to reverse the faulty solutions based upon it before another financial crisis breaks out.

    • Economic systems & structures
      December 2018

      The Age of Unproductive Capital

      New Architectures of Power

      by Author(s): Ladislau Dowbor

      This book offers a very direct and readable analysis of the main challenges facing our societies today, such as reducing inequality, protecting the planet, and in particular mobilizing our financial resources which linger in tax havens and feed speculation, instead of funding the sustainable development we need. It precisely considers the most important factors, including corporate governance, financialization, capturing political power, and the limits to adequate national economic policies in a world dominated by global finance. The book’s presentation of how sensible and productive policies are dismantled will be highly interesting for the international community, whether in the academic, corporate or government spheres.

    • Political economy
      June 2014

      The Debt Crisis in the Eurozone

      Social Impacts

      by Editor(s): Nicholas P. Petropoulos, George O. Tsobanoglou

      During the past four years, the countries of the European periphery – the so-called PIIGS (Portugal, Ireland, Italy, Greece and Spain) – have been experiencing an economic-financial crisis that can only be compared to the Great Depression. To solve the crisis, the EU and the IMF instituted bailout programs for the debit countries on conditions of austerity and structural reforms.In this volume 20 social scientists, using both theoretical and empirical tools, delve into the causes and the social impacts of this crisis. The volume also provides an excellent background for a better comprehension of the dynamics of structural and political changes now taking place within the European Union. The social impacts cover a range of consequences, including poverty, unemployment, anti-migrant attitudes, a decline of welfare and health indicators, post-traumatic stress disorders, national humiliation, political alienation and social protest. The authors analyse the “international” and the “domestic” causes of the crisis, while some of them underline the importance of both factors. In the concluding chapter, the editors undertake a synthesis of the previous chapters, and extract a number of policy recommendations that – if adopted – could transform the current financial crisis into a growth-opportunity for the European Union and its member states.

    • Financial crises & disasters
      September 2012

      The Subprime Crisis and Its Impact on Financial and Managerial Environments

      An Unequal Repercussion at European Level

      by Editor(s): Elisabeth Paulet

      History has shown us the role that financial and banking crises have had in economic transformation. The last crisis in 2008 was particularly significant because of its extent and its effect worldwide. Two aspects hold equal importance. Firstly, governance is a key concept to be clearly defined and enforced, especially within the EU. Both entrepreneurial and financial players must measure the impact of their various actions (transparency in decision-making processes, strategic choices to achieve profit, etc.), maintaining their market position while preserving the social positioning of all partners. Secondly, from a more technical point of view, the relevance of mathematical and quantitative methods should be discussed in order to evaluate asset performance. Securitization has always been a tool used to increase financial institutions’ profit margins but it cannot become their primary goal. The error does not come from the use of this technique but from its misuse at international level.This book aims to provide the reader with a broad discussion of the financial impacts and consequences arising from the last subprime crisis. By means of an international and European analysis, the different contributors intend to stress the relevance of a multi-national solution guaranteeing the stability of the international financial and banking system.

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