• Economic history

      The Great Coalfied War

      by George McGovern

      "A definitive study of the Ludlow massacre and events leading up to it. This story has much drama and struggle, and it holds some crucial lessons about industrial strife and about how viciously brutal America's capitalists were a couple of generations ago." -- Los Angeles Times "The effect of this work is simply enraging, for the reality that the documentation evokes, both of wickedness and of the suffering that that wickedness caused, is intolerable." -- The New Yorker In the early 20th century, Colorado yielded more than a million tons of coal annually -- hacked and blasted out by immigrants from Eastern Europe living in crudely built towns owned by powerful mine operators. The companies owned the stores, ran the schools, churches, hospitals, and saloons, and bribed the region's lawmen to keep union organizers out. Mine safety was all but unheard-of when in 1913 mine explosions killed more than four hundred workers in just two of the mines. The United Mineworkers' Union infiltrated the towns, and thirteen thousand miners and their families made one mass exodus to establish a tent colony near the rail outpost at Ludlow. Months of fighting between the miners and company gunmen assisted by the Colorado State National Guard culminated in the Ludlow Massacre where tents were set afire, suffocating women and children who had sought shelter in storage pits beneath tent floorboards. The resultant public scandal compelled Washington to intervene, but it would take years before Colorado's coal miners gained union protection. The Great Coalfield War is a part of western history and an especially important part in view of today's declining union enrollments and the national movement to deregulate workplace safety laws and the federal agencies that enforce them.

    • Labour economics
      February 1982

      Scientific Communication and National Security

      by Panel on Scientific Communication and National Security, National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine

      The military, political, and economic preeminence of the United States during the post-World War II era is based to a substantial degree on its superior rate of achievement in science and technology, as well as on its capacity to translate these achievements into products and processes that contribute to economic prosperity and the national defense. The success of the U.S. scientific enterprise has been facilitated by many factors, important among them the opportunity for American scientists and engineers to pursue their research-and to communicate with each other-in a free and open environment. During the last two administrations, however, concern has arisen that the characteristically open U.S. scientific community has served as one of the channels through which critical information and know-how are flowing to the Soviet Union and to other potential adversary countries; openness in science is thus perceived to present short-term national security risks in addition to its longer-term national security benefits in improved U.S. military technology. The Panel on Scientific Communication and National Security was asked to examine the various aspects of the application of controls to scientific communication and to suggest how to balance competing national objectives so as to best serve the general welfare. The Panel held three two-day meetings in Washington at which it was briefed by representatives of the departments of Defense, State, and Commerce, and by representatives of the intelligence community, including the Central Intelligence Agency, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Defense Intelligence Agency, and the National Security Agency. The Panel also heard presentations by members of the research community and by university representatives. In addition to these briefings, the Rand Corporation prepared an independent analysis of the transfer of sensitive technology from the United States to the Soviet Union. To determine the views of scientists and administrators at major research universities, the Panel asked a group of faculty members and administrative officials at Cornell University to prepare a paper incorporating their own views and those of counterparts at other universities. The main thrust of the Panel's findings is completely reflected in this document. However, the Panel has also produced a classified version of the subpanel report based on the secret intelligence information it was given; this statement is available at the Academy to those with the appropriate security clearance.

    • Labour economics
      January 1985

      The Competitive Status of the U.S. Steel Industry

      by Steel Panel Committee on Technology and International Economic and Trade Issues of the Office of the Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, National Research Council

      This volume examines the influences of technology and international trade policies on the troubled U.S. steel industry. Does leadership in technology guarantee competitive advantage in industrial markets? Or do the costs of production and the lack of investment capital offset technological gains for the domestic steel industry? Which international trade policies can help this industry, and which may be harming it? With these and other questions in view, The Competitive Status of the U.S. Steel Industry estimates global trends in steel trade, discusses patterns of production and consumption, and analyzes the possible effects of alternative governmental policies on this critically important industry.

    • Labour economics
      February 1985

      Urban Policy in a Changing Federal System

      Proceedings of a Symposium

      by Charles R. Warren, Editor, Committee on National Urban Policy, National Research Council

      When the United States' founding fathers set up a federal system of government, they asked a question that has never been satisfactorily settled: How much governmental authority belongs to the states, and how much to the national government? In an atmosphere of changing priorities and power bases, the Committee on National Urban Policy convened a symposium to address this division. The symposium examined the "New Federalism" as it relates to the Supreme Court, urban development, taxpayers, job training, and related topics. "Throughout the symposium the future evolution of the American federal system was debated," says the book's summary. "Yet whatever new idea or theory emerges, it is likely to continue to include the inevitable conflict between the allegiance to a national government and the respect for state and local loyalties."

    • Labour economics
      January 1986

      The Positive Sum Strategy

      Harnessing Technology for Economic Growth

      by Ralph Landau and Nathan Rosenberg, editors

      This volume provides a state-of-the-art review of the relationship between technology and economic growth. Many of the 42 chapters discuss the political and corporate decisions for what one author calls a "Competitiveness Policy." As contributor John A. Young states, "Technology is our strongest advantage in world competition. Yet we do not capitalize on our preeminent position, and other countries are rapidly closing the gap." This lively volume provides many fresh insights including "two unusually balanced and illuminating discussions of Japan," Science noted.

    • Labour economics
      January 1986

      Population Growth and Economic Development

      Policy Questions

      by Working Group on Population Growth and Economic Development; Committee on Population; National Research Council

      This book addresses nine relevant questions: Will population growth reduce the growth rate of per capita income because it reduces the per capita availability of exhaustible resources? How about for renewable resources? Will population growth aggravate degradation of the natural environment? Does more rapid growth reduce worker output and consumption? Do rapid growth and greater density lead to productivity gains through scale economies and thereby raise per capita income? Will rapid population growth reduce per capita levels of education and health? Will it increase inequality of income distribution? Is it an important source of labor problems and city population absorption? And, finally, do the economic effects of population growth justify government programs to reduce fertility that go beyond the provision of family planning services?

    • Labour economics
      February 1985

      The Competitive Status of the U.S. Civil Aviation Manufacturing Industry

      A Study of the Influences of Technology in Determining International Industrial Competitive Advantage

      by U.S. Civil Aviation Manufacturing Industry Panel, Committee on Technology and International Economic and Trade Issues of the Office of the Foreign Secretary, Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems, National Research Council

      Deregulation, higher costs, foreign competition, and financial risks are causing profound changes in civil aviation. These trends are reviewed along with growing federal involvement in trade, technology transfer, technological developments in airframes and propulsion, and military-civil aviation relationships. Policy options to preserve the strength and effectiveness of civil aircraft manufacturing are offered.

    • Labour economics
      January 1986

      Electricity in Economic Growth

      by Committee on Electricity in Economic Growth; Energy Engineering Board; National Research Council

      This volume surveys the complex relationships between economic activity and electricity use, showing how trends in the growth of electricity demand may be affected by changes in the economy, and examining the connection between the use of electrotechnologies and productivity. With a mix of historical perspective, technical analysis, and synthesis of econometric findings, the book brings together a summary of the work of leading national experts.

    • Labour economics
      February 1988

      Urban Change and Poverty

      by Committee on National Urban Policy, National Research Council

      This up-to-date review of the critical issues confronting cities and individuals examines the policy implications of the difficult problems that will affect the future of urban America. Among the topics covered are the income, opportunities, and quality of life of urban residents; family structure, poverty, and the underclass; the redistribution of people and jobs in urban areas; urban economic growth patterns; fiscal conditions in large cities; and essays on governance and the deteriorating state of cities' aging infrastructures.

    • Labour economics
      January 1988

      Globalization of Technology

      International Perspectives

      by Proceedings of the Sixth Convocation of The Council of Academies of Engineering and Technological Sciences; Janet H. Muroyama and H. Guyford, Editors

      The technological revolution has reached around the world, with important consequences for business, government, and the labor market. Computer-aided design, telecommunications, and other developments are allowing small players to compete with traditional giants in manufacturing and other fields. In this volume, 16 engineering and industrial experts representing eight countries discuss the growth of technological advances and their impact on specific industries and regions of the world. From various perspectives, these distinguished commentators describe the practical aspects of technology's reach into business and trade.

    • Labour economics
      January 1990

      Inner-City Poverty in the United States

      by Committee on National Urban Policy, National Research Council

      This volume documents the continuing growth of concentrated poverty in central cities of the United States and examines what is known about its causes and effects. With careful analyses of policy implications and alternative solutions to the problem, it presents: A statistical picture of people who live in areas of concentrated poverty. An analysis of 80 persistently poor inner-city neighborhoods over a 10-year period. Study results on the effects of growing up in a "bad" neighborhood. An evaluation of how the suburbanization of jobs has affected opportunities for inner-city blacks. A detailed examination of federal policies and programs on poverty. Inner-City Poverty in the United States will be a valuable tool for policymakers, program administrators, researchers studying urban poverty issues, faculty, and students.

    • Labour economics
      February 1990

      Competitiveness of the U.S. Minerals and Metals Industry

      by Committee on Competitiveness of the U.S. Minerals and Metals Industry, Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems, National Research Council

      This book includes an assessment of the global minerals and metals industry; a review of technologies in use for exploration, mining, minerals processing, and metals extraction; and a look at research priorities. The core of the volume is a series of specific recommendations for government, industry, and the academic community, to promote partnerships that will produce a strong flow of new technologies. Special focus is given to the role of the federal government, particularly the Bureau of Mines.

    • Labour economics
      January 1991

      Finding Common Ground

      U.S. Export Controls in a Changed Global Environment

      by Panel on the Future Design and Implementation of U.S. National Security Export Controls, National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine

      Protecting U.S. security by controlling technology export has long been a major issue. But the threat of the Soviet sphere is rapidly being superseded by state-sponsored terrorism; nuclear, chemical, biological, and missile proliferation; and other critical security factors. This volume provides a policy outline and specific steps for an urgently needed revamping of U.S. and multilateral export controls. It presents the latest information on these and many other pressing issues: The successes and failures of U.S. export controls, including a look at U.S. laws, regulations, and export licensing; U.S. participation in international agencies; and the role of industry. The effects of export controls on industry. The growing threat of "proliferation" technologies. World events make this volume indispensable to policymakers, government security agencies, technology exporters, and faculty and students of international affairs.

    • Labour economics
      February 1987

      Technology and Global Industry

      Companies and Nations in the World Economy

      by Bruce R. Guile and Harvey Brooks, Editors

    • Labour economics
      January 1991

      Technology and Economics

      by National Academy of Engineering

      Engineers need economists' insights about the marketplace to understand how economic forces shape the environment for technological innovation. Just as important, economists must come to understand the power and process of technological change in industry. Technology and Economics defines the common ground for this ongoing dialogue between engineers and economists. This book presents the views of some of the leading U.S. economists and technologists who have worked to deepen understanding of the interactions between technology and economics. It explores topics relating to economic growth and productivity, the relation of technical progress to capital formation, investing in productivity growth, the relationship between technology and the cost of capital, future challenges to agricultural research, and innovation in the chemical processing industries. Industrialists and technologists, as well as economists, will find this book useful as an overview to issues of common concern.

    • Labour economics
      February 1991

      Europe 1992

      The Implications of Market Integration for R & D-Intensive Firms

      by Academy Industry Program and Office of International Affairs, National Research Council

      The 12 member nations of the European Economic Community (EC) are engaged in a bold effort to create a Single European Market by the end of 1992. The changes brought about by European market integration will have a major impact on U.S. industry. Although proponents of the plan argue that it will benefit businesses by allowing economies of scale, more efficient marketing, and increased demands for goods and services from outside the Community, there is some concern that the Single European Market may serve to exclude or limit participation of non-European competition. The impact is likely to be particularly pronounced in industries with heavy involvement in research and development. This volume is based on a major two-day symposium which brought together officials of United States and other governments, industry representatives, and academic experts to examine EC policies on technical standards, intellectual property rights, access to the results of EC-supported basic research, and other issues affecting R&D intensive firms.

    • Labour economics
      January 1991

      Mathematical Sciences, Technology, and Economic Competitiveness

      by Board on Mathematical Sciences, National Research Council

      This book describes the contributions of mathematics to the nation's advanced technology and to economic competitiveness. Examples from five industries--aircraft, petroleum, automotive, semiconductor, and telecommunications--illustrate how mathematics enters into and improves industry. Mathematical Sciences, Technology, and Economic Competitiveness addresses these high-technology industries and breadth of mathematical endeavors in the United States as they materially contribute to the technology base from which innovation in these industries flows. The book represents a serious attempt by the mathematics community to bring about an awareness by policymakers of the pervasive influence of mathematics in everyday life.

    • Labour economics
      February 1992

      Behind the Numbers

      U.S. Trade in the World Economy

      by Anne Y. Kester, Editor; Panel on Foreign Trade Statistics, Committee on National Statistics, National Research Council

      America's international economic decisions rest to a large degree on the information available to policymakers. Yet the quality of international trade and financial data is in serious doubt. This book reveals how our systems for collecting and analyzing trade data have fallen behind the times--and presents recommendations for new approaches to accuracy and usefulness of these economic data. The volume traces the burgeoning use of international economic data by public and private analysts at a time when the United States is becoming increasingly integrated into the world economy. It also points out problems of capturing new transactions, comparing data from different sources, limited access to the data, and more. This is the first volume to review all three types of U.S. international data--merchandise trade, international services transactions, and capital flows. Highlights include: Specific steps for U.S. agencies to take. Special analyses on improving the accuracy of merchandise trade data, filling data gaps on the fast-growing international services transactions, and understanding structural changes in world capital markets. Comments, complaints, and suggestions from an original survey of more than 100 key users of trade data. This practical volume will be invaluable to policymakers, government officials, business executives, economists, statisticians, and researchers.

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