• Sociology: work & labour
      July 2015

      The sociology of unemployment

      by Edited by Tom Boland and Ray Griffin

      The sociology of unemployment is an analysis of the experience and governance of unemployment. By considering unemployment as more than just the absence of work; the book explores unemployment as a distinctive experience created by the welfare state. Each chapter explores an aspect of the experience or governance of unemployment; beginning with how people talk about their experience of being unemployed individually and collectively, to the places of unemployment, and on to the processes, policies and forms of the social welfare system. Clear explanations of classic theories are explored and extended, all against the backdrop of new primary research. Chapter by chapter, The sociology of unemployment challenges the 'deprivation theory of unemployment' which dominates sociology, psychology and social policy, by focusing on how governmental power forms the experience of unemployment. As a result, the book is both an introductory text on the sociology of unemployment and a fresh, critical perspective.

    • Humanities & Social Sciences
      July 2015

      The sociology of unemployment

      by Tom Boland, Ray Griffin

      The sociology of unemployment is an analysis of the experience and governance of unemployment. By considering unemployment as more than just the absence of work; the book explores unemployment as a distinctive experience created by the welfare state. Each chapter explores an aspect of the experience or governance of unemployment; beginning with how people talk about their experience of being unemployed individually and collectively, to the places of unemployment, and on to the processes, policies and forms of the social welfare system. Clear explanations of classic theories are explored and extended, all against the backdrop of new primary research. Chapter by chapter, The sociology of unemployment challenges the 'deprivation theory of unemployment' which dominates sociology, psychology and social policy, by focusing on how governmental power forms the experience of unemployment. As a result, the book is both an introductory text on the sociology of unemployment and a fresh, critical perspective. ;

    • Sociology: work & labour
      July 2015

      The sociology of unemployment

      by Edited by Tom Boland and Ray Griffin

      The sociology of unemployment is an analysis of the experience and governance of unemployment. By considering unemployment as more than just the absence of work; the book explores unemployment as a distinctive experience created by the welfare state. Each chapter explores an aspect of the experience or governance of unemployment; beginning with how people talk about their experience of being unemployed individually and collectively, to the places of unemployment, and on to the processes, policies and forms of the social welfare system. Clear explanations of classic theories are explored and extended, all against the backdrop of new primary research. Chapter by chapter, The sociology of unemployment challenges the 'deprivation theory of unemployment' which dominates sociology, psychology and social policy, by focusing on how governmental power forms the experience of unemployment. As a result, the book is both an introductory text on the sociology of unemployment and a fresh, critical perspective.

    • Sociology: work & labour
      February 1980

      Work, Jobs, and Occupations

      A Critical Review of the Dictionary of Occupational Titles

      by Committee on Occupational Classification and Analysis, National Research Council

      Various editions of the Dictionary of Occupational Titles have served as the Employment Service's basic tool for matching workers and jobs. The Dictionary of Occupational Titles has also played an important role in establishing skill and training requirements and developing Employment Service testing batteries for specific occupations. However, the role of the Dictionary of Occupational Titles has been called into question as a result of planned changes in the operation of the Employment Service. A plan to automate the operations of Employment Service offices using a descriptive system of occupational keywords rather than occupational titles has led to a claim that a dictionary of occupational titles and the occupational research program that produces it are outmoded. Since the automated keyword system does not rely explicitly on defined occupational titles, it is claimed that the new system would reduce costs by eliminating the need for a research program to supply the occupational definitions. In light of these considerations, the present volume evaluates the future need for the Dictionary of Occupational Titles.

    • Sociology: work & labour
      February 1985

      Office Workstations in the Home

      by Board on Telecommunications and Computer Applications, National Research Council

      Telecommuting--people working at home with computers connected to offices many miles away--could reshape the way America works. What are the effects of this phenomenon on workers, managers, and labor unions? What is the technology behind this arrangement? What are the legal implications surrounding telecommuting? In this volume, these issues are addressed by experts in computer applications and information systems, business and industry, training and operations, corporate forecasting and analysis, law, organizational behavior, and labor. Case studies of several actual telecommuting systems are presented.

    • Sociology: work & labour
      February 1986

      Computer Chips and Paper Clips

      Technology and Women's Employment, Volume I

      by Panel on Technology and Women's Employment; Committee on Women's Employment and Related Social Issues; Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education; National Research Council

      Drawing on the historical changes in five areas--the jobs of telephone operators, workers in the printing and publishing industries, information and data processors, retail clerks, and nurses--this volume offers a comprehensive examination of how microelectronics and telecommunications have affected women's work and their working environments and looks ahead to what can be expected for women workers in the next decade. It also offers perspectives on how workers can more easily adapt to the changing workplace and addresses the controversial topic of job insecurity as a result of an influx of advanced electronic systems.

    • Sociology: work & labour
      January 1989

      Fairness in Employment Testing

      Validity Generalization, Minority Issues, and the General Aptitude Test Battery

      by John A. Hartigan and Alexandra K. Wigdor, Editors; Committee on the General Aptitude Test Battery, National Research Council

      Declining American competitiveness in world economic markets has renewed interest in employment testing as a way of putting the right workers in the right jobs. A new study of the U.S. Department of Labor's General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB) Referral System sheds light on key questions for America's employers: How well does the GATB predict job success? Are there scientific justifications for adjusting minority test scores? Will increased use of the GATB result in substantial increases in productivity? Fairness in Employment Testing evaluates both the validity generalization techniques used to justify the use of the GATB across the spectrum of U.S. jobs and the policy of adjusting test scores to promote equal opportunity.

    • Sociology: work & labour
      January 1991

      Crew Size and Maritime Safety

      by Committee on the Effect of Smaller Crews on Maritime Safety, National Research Council

      U.S. oceangoing vessels have half the crew size of 30 years ago, thanks to automation and mechanization in the shipping industry. But are reductions in crew size increasing the risk of vessel accidents? Crew Size and Maritime Safety explores how we can minimize risk without hindering technology, presenting the most thorough analysis available of key issues such as domestic versus foreign manning practices and safety performance; effect of crew size on crew fatigue, level of training, and ship maintenance; and modernizing the U.S. Coast Guard approach to crew size regulation. The volume features a trend analysis of 20 years of maritime safety data, analyzing U.S. and international laws and treaties concerning ship manning and making recommendations for improvements. In addition, it includes a model for setting optimum crew levels, based on systems engineering and tested with actual ships.

    • Sociology: work & labour
      January 1986

      The Impact of Defense Spending on Nondefense Engineering Labor Markets

      A Report to the National Academy of Engineering

      by Panel on Engineering Labor Markets, National Research Council

    • Sociology: work & labour
      February 1991

      Performance Assessment for the Workplace

      Volume I

      by Alexandra K. Wigdor and Bert F. Green, Jr., Editors; Committee on the Performance of Military Personnel, National Research Council

      Although ability testing has been an American preoccupation since the 1920s, comparatively little systematic attention has been paid to understanding and measuring the kinds of human performance that tests are commonly used to predict--such as success at school or work. Now, a sustained, large-scale effort has been made to develop measures that are very close to actual performance on the job. The four military services have carried out an ambitious study, called the Joint-Service Job Performance Measurement/Enlistment Standards (JPM) Project, that brings new sophistication to the measurement of performance in work settings. Volume 1 analyzes the JPM experience in the context of human resource management policy in the military. Beginning with a historical overview of the criterion problem, it looks closely at substantive and methodological issues in criterion research suggested by the project: the development of performance measures; sampling, logistical, and standardization problems; evaluating the reliability and content representativeness of performance measures; and the relationship between predictor scores and performance measures--valuable information that can also be useful in the civilian workplace.

    • Sociology: work & labour
      February 1991

      Performance Assessment for the Workplace, Volume II

      Technical Issues

      by Alexandra K. Wigdor and Bert F. Green, Jr., Editors; Committee on the Performance of Military Personnel, National Research Council

      Volume II covers a number of measurement and analytical issues in greater technical detail, including: range restriction adjustments, methods for evaluating multiple sources of error in measurement, comparing alternative measures of performance, and strategies for clustering military occupations.

    • Sociology: work & labour
      January 1992

      Human Factors Specialists'Education and Utilization

      Results of a Survey

      by Harold P. Van Cott and Beverly Messick Huey, Editors; Panel on Human Factors Specialists'Education and Utilization, National Research Council

      Does the education given by the nation's human factors graduate training programs meet the skill and knowledge needs of today's employers? Can the supply of trained human factors specialists be expected to keep pace with the demand? What are the characteristics, employment settings, gender distribution, and salaries of human factors specialists? These and other questions were posed by the committee as it designed mail-in and computer-aided telephone surveys used to query human factors specialists. The committee evaluates its findings and makes recommendations aimed at strengthening the profession of human factors. This book will be useful to educators as an aid in evaluating their graduate training curricula, employers in working with graduate programs and enhancing staff opportunities for continuing education, and professionals in assessing their status in relation to their colleagues.

    • Sociology: work & labour
      February 1993

      Computing Professionals

      Changing Needs for the 1990s

      by A Workshop Prepared by the Steering Committee on Human Resources in Computer Science and Technology, Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel, National Research Council

      Surprisingly little is known about the people responsible for advancing the science, technology, and application of computing systems, despite their critical roles in the U.S. economy. As a group, they can be referred to as "computing professionals." But that label masks an unusually wide range of occupations. To add to the confusion, the nature of these occupations is changing rapidly in response to dramatic advances in technology. Building from discussions at a workshop, this book explores the number, composition, demand, and supply of computing professionals in the United States. It identifies key issues and sources of data and illuminates options for improving our understanding of these important occupational groups.

    • Sociology: work & labour
      January 1993

      Improving the Recruitment, Retention, and Utilization of Federal Scientists and Engineers

      by Alan K. Campbell, Stephen J. Lubasik, and Michael G. H. McGeary, Editors;Committee on Scientists and Engineers in the Federal Government, National Research Council

      This book assesses the capacity of the federal government to recruit and retain highly qualified scientists and engineers for federal service. It recommends more vigorous use of the existing Federal Employees Pay Comparability Act of 1990 (FEPCA), as well as changes in legislation. It discusses the variety of management structures needed to support the different missions of federal agencies and identifies where organizational responsibility for implementing changes should lie.

    • Sociology: work & labour
      January 1994

      Women Scientists and Engineers Employed in Industry

      Why So Few?

      by Committee on Women in Science and Engineering, National Research Council

      This book, based on a conference, examines both quantitative and qualitative evidence regarding the low employment of women scientists and engineers in the industrial work force of the United States, as well as corporate responses to this underparticipation. It addresses the statistics underlying the question "Why so few?" and assesses issues related to the working environment and attrition of women professionals.

    • Sociology: work & labour
      April 1997

      Enhancing Organizational Performance

      by Daniel Druckman, Jerome E. Singer, and Harold Van Cott, Editors; Committee on Techniques for the Enhancement of Human Performance, National Research Council

      Total quality management (TQM), reengineering, the workplace of the twenty-first century--the 1990s have brought a sense of urgency to organizations to change or face stagnation and decline, according to Enhancing Organizational Performance. Organizations are adopting popular management techniques, some scientific, some faddish, often without introducing them properly or adequately measuring the outcome. Enhancing Organizational Performance reviews the most popular current approaches to organizational change--total quality management, reengineering, and downsizing--in terms of how they affect organizations and people, how performance improvements can be measured, and what questions remain to be answered by researchers. The committee explores how theory, doctrine, accepted wisdom, and personal experience have all served as sources for organization design. Alternative organization structures such as teams, specialist networks, associations, and virtual organizations are examined. Enhancing Organizational Performance looks at the influence of the organization's norms, values, and beliefs--its culture--on people and their performance, identifying cultural "levers" available to organization leaders. And what is leadership? The committee sorts through a wealth of research to identify behaviors and skills related to leadership effectiveness. The volume examines techniques for developing these skills and suggests new competencies that will become required with globalization and other trends. Mergers, networks, alliances, coalitions--organizations are increasingly turning to new intra- and inter-organizational structures. Enhancing Organizational Performance discusses how organizations cooperate to maximize outcomes. The committee explores the changing missions of the U.S. Army as a case study that has relevance to any organization. Noting that a musical greeting card contains more computing power than existed in the entire world before 1950, the committee addresses the impact of new technologies on performance. With examples, insights, and practical criteria, Enhancing Organizational Performance clarifies the nature of organizations and the prospects for performance improvement. This book will be important to corporate leaders, executives, and managers; faculty and students in organizational performance and the social sciences; business journalists; researchers; and interested individuals.

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