• Islam
      August 2015

      Contemporary Issues in Islam

      by Asma Afsaruddin

      This book deals with certain "hot-button" contemporary issues in Islam that are often the focus of public scrutiny, including the Sharia, jihad, the caliphate, women’s status, and interfaith relations. Notably, it places the discussion of these topics within a longer historical framework in order to reveal their multiple interpretations and contested applications over time. Most public and some academic discourses however present the Islamic tradition as unchanging and therefore unable to respond to the modern world. Such an ahistorical approach fosters the belief that Muslim and Western societies are destined to clash with one another. In contrast, this book allows the reader to see the diversity and transformations within Islamic thought over time. Focusing on this internal diversity permits us to appreciate the scriptural and intellectual resources available within the Islamic tradition for responding to the challenges of modernity, even as it interrogates and shapes modernity itself. ; This book deals with certain "hot-button" contemporary issues in Islam, including the Shari'a, jihad, the caliphate, women’s status, and interfaith relations. Notably, it places the discussion of these topics within a longer historical framework in order to reveal their multiple interpretations and contested applications over time. ; Acknowledgements; Introduction; 1. Negotiating the Shoals of Modernity; 2. Engaging the Sharia: Re-reading the Qur’an and Hadith; 3. Islam and Politics; 4. Islam, Gender, and Feminist Hermeneutics; 5. War and Peacemaking in the Islamic Tradition; 6. American Muslims and the Expansion of the Umma; 7. Religious Dialogue and Inter-Faith Relations; Epilogue: Looking to the Future; Bibliography.

    • History
      January 2015

      The Great Seljuk Empire

      by A. C. S. Peacock

      The Seljuks, nomadic tribesman in origin, invaded the Middle East in the 11th century and established themselves as sultans in the Islamic tradition. The Great Seljuk Empire became one of the major empires of Middle Eastern history and dominated Centra

    • History
      February 2017

      The Fatimid Empire

      by Michael Brett

      From the 10th century to the end of the 12th century, the Fatimid Empire played a central, yet controversial, role in the history of Islam. This definitive account combines the histories of Isma'ilism, North Africa and Egypt with that of the dynasty. B

    • History
      March 2016

      The Near West

      Medieval North Africa, Latin Europe and the Mediterranean in the Second Axial Age

      by Allen James Fromherz

      This book tells stories of interaction, conflict and common exchange between Berbers, Arabs, Latins, Muslims, Christians and Jews in North Africa and Latin Europe. Medieval Western European and North African history were part of a common Western Mediterranean culture. Examining shared commerce, slavery, mercenary activity, art and intellectual and religious debates, this book argues that North Africa was an integral part of western Medieval History. The book tells the history of North Africa and Europe through the eyes of Christian kings and Muslim merchants, Emirs and Popes, Sufis, Friars and Rabbis. It argues North Africa and Europe together experienced the Twelfth Century Renaissance and the Commercial Revolution. When Europe was highly divided during twelfth century, North Africa was enjoying the peak of its power, united under the Berber, Almohad Empire. In the midst of a common commercial growth throughout the medieval period, North Africa and Europe also shared in a burst of spirituality and mysticism. This growth of spirituality occurred even as representatives of Judaism, Christianity and Islam debated and defended their faiths, dreaming of conversion even as they shared the same rational methods. The growth of spirituality instigated a Second Axial Age in the history of religion. Challenging the idea of a Mediterranean split between between Islam and Christianity, the book shows how the Maghrib (North Africa) was not a Muslim, Arab monolith or as an extension of the exotic Orient. North Africa, not the Holy Land to the far East, was the first place where Latin Europeans encountered the Muslim other and vice versa. Medieval North Africa was as diverse and complex as Latin Europe. North Africa should not be dismissed as a side show of European history. North Africa was, in fact, an integral part of the story. ; This book tells stories of interaction, conflict and common exchange between Berbers, Arabs, Latins, Muslims, Christians and Jews in North Africa and Latin Europe. Using individual biographies, this book argues that North Africa was, in fact, an integral part of western history. ; Map; Personal Note and Acknowledgements; Preface: North Africa and the Mediterranean Paradox; Chapter 1. Bèjaïa: Introducing North Africa, Latin Europe and the Mediterranean; Chapter 2. Rome: North Africa and the Papacy; Chapter 3. Tunis: Axis of the Middle Sea; Chapter 4. Marrakech: The Founding of a City; Chapter 5. The Almohads: Empire of the Western Mediterranean; Chapter 6. Ibn Khaldun and the Fourteenth Century; Chapter 7. Conclusions: Proposing a Second Axial Age; Notes; Bibliography; Index. ; MapPersonal Note and AcknowledgementsPreface: North Africa and the Mediterranean ParadoxChapter 1. Bèjaïa: Introducing North Africa, Latin Europe and the MediterraneanChapter 2. Rome: North Africa and the PapacyChapter 3. Tunis: Axis of the Middle SeaChapter 4. Marrakech: The Founding of a CityChapter 5. The Almohads: Empire of the Western MediterraneanChapter 6. Ibn Khaldun and the Fourteenth CenturyChapter 7. Conclusions: Proposing a Second Axial AgeNotesBibliographyIndex

    • History
      August 2016

      The Almoravid and Almohad Empires

      by Amira K. Bennison

      A comprehensive account of two of the most important empires in medieval North Africa. ; List of Figures; List of Abbreviations; Acknowledgements; Note on Transliteration; Chapter 1. Introduction; Chapter 2. The Almoravids: Striving in the path of God; Chapter 3. The Almohads: Revelation, revolution and empire; Chapter 4. Society in the Almoravid and Almohad eras, 1050-1250; Chapter 5. Economy and trade within and beyond imperial frontiers, 1050-1250; Chapter 6. Malikism, Mahdism and Mysticism: Religion and learning, 1050-1250; Chapter 7. ‘The most wondrous artifice’: Art and Architecture of the Berber empires; Chapter 8. Conclusion; Chronological Outline; List of Place Names in Latin and Arabic forms; Glossary of Arabic terms; Bibliography; Index.

    • History
      April 2016

      Astronomy and Astrology in the Islamic World

      by Stephen P. Blake

      It was the astronomers and mathematicians of the Islamic world who provided the theories and concepts that paved the way from the geocentric theories of Claudius Ptolemy in the second century AD to the heliocentric breakthroughs of Nicholas Copernicus and Johannes Kepler in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Algebra, the Arabic numeral system, and trigonometry: all these and more originated in the Muslim East and undergirded an increasingly accurate and sophisticated understanding of the movements of the Sun, Moon, and planets. This nontechnical overview of the Islamic advances in the heavenly sciences allows the general reader to appreciate (for the first time) the absolutely crucial role that Muslim scientists played in the overall development of astronomy and astrology in the Eurasian world. ; This textbook surveys the major advances in the heavenly sciences from Isfahan, Maragha and Samarqand. It looks at the development of astronomy and astrology in the Islamic world from the 9th to the 17th century, and their influence on the beliefs and practices of individuals and institutions in the Islamic world and Europe. ; List of Colour PLates; Preface; Chapter One: From Egypt to Islam; Chapter Two: Muhammad to the Seljuqs; Chapter Three: Observatory at Isfahan; Chapter Four: Astronomy and Astrology in Al-Andalus; Chapter Five: Observatory at Maragha; Chapter Six: Observatory at Samarqand; Chapter Seven: Observatory at Istanbul; Chapter Eight: Observatory at Shahjahanabad; Chapter Nine: Conclusion; Glossary; Select Bibliography; Index.

    • History
      March 2013

      The Written Word in the Medieval Arabic Lands

      A Social and Cultural History of Reading Practices

      by Konrad Hirschler

      Winner of the 2012 BRISMES book prize. Medieval Islamic societies belonged to the most bookish cultures of their period. Using a wide variety of documentary, narrative and normative sources, Konrad Hirschler explores the growth of reading audiences in

    • Islam
      January 2017

      A History of Islam in Indonesia

      Unity in Diversity

      by Carool Kersten

      Located on the eastern periphery of the historical Muslim world, as a political entity Indonesia is barely a century old. Yet with close to a quarter of a billion followers of Islam it is now the largest and most populous Muslim country in the world. As the greatest political power in Southeast Asia, and a growing player on the world scene, Indonesia presents itself as a bridge country between Asia, the wider Muslim world and the West. In this survey Carool Kersten presents the Islamisation of Indonesia from the first evidence of the acceptance of Islam by indigenous peoples in the late thirteenth century until the present day. He provides comprehensive insight into the different roles played by Islam in Indonesia throughout history, including the importance of Indian Ocean networks for connecting Indonesians with the wider Islamic world, the religion’s role as a means of resistance and tool for nation building, and postcolonial attempts to forge an ‘Indonesian Islam’. ; In this survey Carool Kersten presents the Islamisation of Indonesia from the first evidence of the acceptance of Islam by indigenous peoples in the late thirteenth century until the present day. ; Acknowledgements; A note on translation and transliteration; Glossary; Introduction; 1. The Arrival of Islam; 2. Network Islam; 3. Islam as Resistance; 4. Islam and Nation-building; 5. An Indonesian Islam?; Conclusion; Endnotes; Bibliography; Index. ; Acknowledgements A note on translation and transliteration Glossary Introduction 1. The arrival of Islam 2. Network Islam 3. Islam as resistance 4. Islam and nation-building 5. An Indonesian Islam? Conclusion Endnotes Bibliography Index

    • Islam
      September 2016

      Islamic Reform in Twentieth-Century Africa

      by Roman Loimeier

      Based on twelve case studies (Senegal, Mali, Nigeria, Niger, Chad, Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Zanzibar and the Comoros), this book looks at patterns and peculiarities of different traditions of Islamic reform. Considering both Sufi- and Salafi-oriented movements in their respective historical contexts, it stresses the importance of the local context to explain the different trajectories of development. The book studies the social, religious and political impact of these reform movements in both historical and contemporary times and asks why some have become successful as popular mass movements, while others failed to attract substantial audiences. It also considers jihad-minded movements in contemporary Mali, northern Nigeria and Somalia and looks at modes of transnational entanglement of movements of reform. Against the background of a general inquiry into what constitutes ‘reform’, the text responds to the question of what ‘reform’ actually means for Muslims in contemporary Africa. ; Based on twelve case studies (Senegal, Mali, Nigeria, Niger, Chad, Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Zanzibar and the Comoros), this book looks at patterns and peculiarities of different traditions of Islamic reform. ; Glossary of Arabic terms; Foreword; A Note on Islamic Transnational Organisations; 1. Introduction: The Context of Reform; 2. What is Reform?; 3. Reform in Context I: Senegal (and Mali); 4. Reform in Context II: Northern Nigeria (and Niger); 5. Reform in Context III: Chad, Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia; 6. Reform in Context IV: Tanzania (and Kenya); 7. Reform in Context V: Zanzibar (and the Comoros); 8. Conclusion: The meaning of Islamic Reform; Bibliography; Index.

    • Islam
      June 2016

      Islamic Thought in China

      Sino-Muslim Intellectual Evolution from the 17th to the 21st Century

      by Jonathan N Lipman

      How can people belong simultaneously to two cultures, originating in two different places and expressed in two different languages, without alienating themselves from either? Muslims have lived in the Chinese culture area for 1400 years, and the intellectuals among them have long wrestled with this problem. Unlike Persian, Turkish, Urdu, or Malay, the Chinese language never adopted vocabulary from Arabic to enable a precise understanding of Islam’s religious and philosophical foundations. Islam thus had to be translated into Chinese, which lacks words and arguments to justify monotheism, exclusivity, and other features of this Middle Eastern religion. Even in the 21st century, Muslims who are culturally Chinese must still justify their devotion to a single God, avoidance of pork, and their communities’ distinctiveness, among other things, to sceptical non-Muslim neighbours and an increasingly intrusive state. The essays in this collection narrate the continuing translations and adaptations of Islam and Muslims in Chinese culture and society through the writings of Sino-Muslim intellectuals. Progressing chronologically and interlocking thematically, they help the reader develop a coherent understanding of the intellectual issues at stake. ; The essays in this volume tell the stories of Chinese Muslim intellectuals trying to create satisfying, safe and coherent lives at the intersection of two potentially conflicting cultures. ; Editor’s Introduction: Four Centuries of Islamic Thought in Chinese; Jonathan Lipman; Part I: The Qing Empire (1636-1912); Chapter 1. A Proper Place for God: Ma Zhu’s Chinese Islamic Cosmogenesis, Jonathan Lipman; Chapter 2. Liu Zhi: The Great Integrator of Chinese Islamic Thought, James D. Frankel; Chapter 3. Tianfang Sanzijing: Exchanges and Changes in China’s Reception of Islamic Law, Roberta Tontini; Chapter 4. The Multiple Meanings of Pilgrimage in Sino-Islamic Thought, Kristian Petersen; Part II: Modern China; Chapter 5. Ethnicity or Religion? Republican-Era Chinese Debates on Islam and Muslims, Wlodzimierz Cieciura; Chapter 6. Selective Learning from the Middle East: The Case of Sino-Muslim Students at al-Azhar University, Yufeng Mao; Chapter 7. Secularization and Modernization of Islam in China: Educational Reform, Japanese Occupation, and the Disappearance of Persian Learning, Masumi Matsumoto; Chapter 8. Between ‘Abd al-Wahhab and Liu Zhi: Chinese Muslim Intellectuals at the Turn of the 21st Century, Leila Chérif-Chebbi; Bibliography; Glossary of East Asian Names; Glossary of East Asian Terms; List of Contributors.

    • History
      December 2016

      Islamic Law and Empire in Ottoman Cairo

      by James E. Baldwin

      What did Islamic law mean in the early modern period, a world of great Muslim empires? Often portrayed as the quintessential jurists’ law, to a large extent it was developed by scholars outside the purview of the state. However, for the Sultans of the Ottoman Empire, justice was the ultimate duty of the monarch, and Islamic law was a tool of legitimation and governance. James E. Baldwin examines how the interplay of these two conceptions of Islamic law – religious scholarship and royal justice – undergirded legal practice in Cairo, the largest and richest city in the Ottoman provinces. Through detailed studies of the various formal and informal dispute resolution institutions and practices that formed the fabric of law in Ottoman Cairo, his book contributes to key questions concerning the relationship between the shari‘a and political power, the plurality of Islamic legal practice, and the nature of centre-periphery relations in the Ottoman Empire. ; James E. Baldwin examines how the interplay of these two conceptions of Islamic law – religious scholarship and royal justice – undergirded legal practice in Cairo, the largest and richest city in the Ottoman provinces. ; Abbreviations; Abbreviations; Note on transliteration and dates; Introduction; 1. A Brief Portrait of Cairo under Ottoman Rule; 2. Cairo’s Legal System: Institutions and Actors; 3. Royal Justice: The Dīvān-i Hümāyūn and the Dīwān al-ʿĀlī; 4. Government Authority, the Interpretation of Fiqh, and the Production of Applied Law; 5. The Privatization of Justice: Dispute Resolution as a Domain of Political Competition; 6. A Culture of Disputing: How Did Cairenes Use the Legal System?; Conclusion: Ottoman Cairo’s legal system and grand narratives; Appendix: Examples of Documents Used in this Study; Notes; Map: Cairo in the Eighteenth Century; Glossary; Sources and Works Cited; Index. ; AbbreviationsAbbreviationsNote on transliteration and datesIntroduction1. A Brief Portrait of Cairo under Ottoman Rule2. Cairo’s Legal System: Institutions and Actors3. Royal Justice: The Dīvān-i Hümāyūn and the Dīwān al-ʿĀlī4. Government Authority, the Interpretation of Fiqh, and the Production of Applied Law5. The Privatization of Justice: Dispute Resolution as a Domain of Political Competition6. A Culture of Disputing: How Did Cairenes Use the Legal System?Conclusion: Ottoman Cairo’s legal system and grand narrativesAppendix: Examples of Documents Used in this StudyNotesMap: Cairo in the Eighteenth CenturyGlossarySources and Works CitedIndex

    • History
      January 2016

      The Jalayirids

      Dynastic State Formation in the Mongol Middle East

      by Patrick Wing

      This book traces the origins, history, and memory of the Jalayirid dynasty, a family that succeeded the Mongol Ilkhans in Iran and Iraq in the 14th and early 15th centuries. The story of how the Jalayirids came to power is illustrative of the political dynamics that shaped much of the Mongol and post-Mongol period in the Middle East. The Jalayirid sultans sought to preserve the social and political order of the Ilkhanate, while claiming that they were the rightful heirs to the rulership of that order. Central to the Jalayirids’ claims to the legacy of the Ilkhanate was their attempt to control the Ilkhanid heartland of Azarbayjan and its major city, Tabriz. Control of Azarbayjan meant control of a network of long-distance trade between China and the Latin West, which continued to be a source of economic prosperity through the 8th/14th century. Azarbayjan also represented the center of Ilkhanid court life, whether in the migration of the mobile court-camp of the ruler, or in the complexes of palatial, religious and civic buildings constructed around the city of Tabriz by members of the Ilkhanid royal family, as well as by members of the military and administrative elite. ; This book examines the rise and collapse of Mongol rule in Iran and Iraq, and its revival by a family of sultans who claimed to be the rightful heirs to the Mongol khans. The Jalayirids offers a glimpse at a long overlooked but critical period in the history of the Middle East in the late medieval period. ; Acknowledgements; Abbreviations for Primary and Secondary Source Texts; Chapter 1. Introduction and Sources for the History of the Jalayirids; Chapter 2. Tribes and the Chinggisid Empire; Chapter 3. The Jalayirs and the Early Ilkhanate; Chapter 4. From Tribal Amirs to Royal In-Laws; Chapter 5. Crisis and Transition (1335-1356); Chapter 6. Shaykh Uvays and the Jalayirid Dynasty; Chapter 7. Dynastic Ideology during the Reign of Shaykh Uvays; Chapter 8. Challenges to the Jalayirid Order; Chapter 9. Conclusions and the Legacy of the Jalayirids; Maps; Genealogy of the Jalayirid Dynasty; Bibliography; Index. ; AcknowledgementsAbbreviations for Primary and Secondary Source TextsChapter 1. Introduction and Sources for the History of the JalayiridsChapter 2. Tribes and the Chinggisid EmpireChapter 3. The Jalayirs and the Early IlkhanateChapter 4. From Tribal Amirs to Royal In-LawsChapter 5. Crisis and Transition (1335-1356)Chapter 6. Shaykh Uvays and the Jalayirid DynastyChapter 7. Dynastic Ideology during the Reign of Shaykh UvaysChapter 8. Challenges to the Jalayirid OrderChapter 9. Conclusions and the Legacy of the JalayiridsMapsGenealogy of the Jalayirid DynastyBibliographyIndex

    • History
      May 2016

      Imagining the Arabs

      Arab Identity and the Rise of Islam

      by Peter Webb

      Who are the Arabs? When did people begin calling themselves Arabs? And what was the Arabs’ role in the rise of Islam? Investigating these core questions about Arab identity and history by marshalling the widest array of Arabic sources employed hitherto, and by closely interpreting the evidence with theories of identity and ethnicity, Imagining the Arabs proposes new answers to the riddle of Arab origins and fundamental reinterpretations of early Islamic history. This book reveals that the time-honoured stereotypes which depict Arabs as ancient Arabian Bedouin are entirely misleading because the essence of Arab identity was in fact devised by Muslims during the first centuries of Islam. Arab identity emerged and evolved as groups imagined new notions of community to suit the radically changing circumstances of life in the early Caliphate. The idea of ‘the Arab’ was a device which Muslims utilised to articulate their communal identity, to negotiate post-Conquest power relations, and to explain the rise of Islam. Over Islam’s first four centuries, political elites, genealogists, poetry collectors, historians and grammarians all participated in a vibrant process of imagining and re-imagining Arab identity and history, and the sum of their works established a powerful tradition that influences Middle Eastern communities to the present day. ; Investigating the core questions about Arab identity and history, this book tackles the time-honoured stereotypes that depict Arabs as ancient Arabian Bedouin, and reveals the stories to be a myth: tales told by Muslims to recreate the past to explain the meaning of Islam and its origins. ; Acknowledgements; Note on the Text; Introduction; Part 1: The Rise of Arab Communities; 1. The Rise of Arab Communities; I. Arabs and pre-Islamic Textual Traditions; II. Arabs in Arabia: ethnogenesis, interpretations and problems; III. An Arabness pretence: pre-Islamic ‘Arab’-cognates reconsidered; 2. Pre-Islamic ‘Arabless-ness’: Arabian Identities; I. The Arabic Language: a signpost to Arabness?; II. The search for Arabs in pre-Islamic poetry; III. Contextualising the ‘Arabless’ Poetry: ethnic boundaries in pre-Islamic Arabia; IV. The rise of ‘Arab’ poetry; V. Transition from ‘Maʿadd’ to ‘Arab’: case study of Dhū Qār; VI. Pre-Islamic Arabian identity: conclusions; 3. Arabness from the Qur’an to an ethnos; I. ‘Arab’: an ethnonym resurrected?; II. The Qur’an and Arabness; III. Early Islam and the genesis of Arab identity; Part Two: The Changing Faces of Arabness in Early Islam; 4. Interpreting Arabs: defining their name and constructing their family; I. ‘Arab’ defined; II. Arabness and contested lineage; III. Arab genealogy reconsidered: kinship, gender and identity; IV. The creation of ‘traditional’ Arab genealogy; V. Defining Arabs: conclusions; 5. Arabs as a people and Arabness as an idea: 750-900 CE; I. Arabs in the early Abbasid Caliphate (132-193/750-809); II. Forging an Iraqi ‘Arab Past’; III. al-Jāhiliyya and imagining pre-Islamic Arabs; IV. Arabs and Arabia: changing relationships in the third/ninth century; 6. Philologists, ‘Bedouinisation’ and the ‘Archetypal Arab’ after the mid-third/ninth century; I. Philologists and Arabness: changing conceptions of Arabic between the late second/eighth and fourth/tenth centuries; II. The transformation of Arabness into Bedouin-ness; III. Bedouin Arabness and the emergence of a Jāhiliyya archetype; IV. Conclusions; Imagining and Reimagining the Arabs: Conclusions; Bibliography.

    • History
      February 2016

      Medieval Damascus: Plurality and Diversity in an Arabic Library

      The Ashrafiya Library Catalogue

      by Konrad Hirschler

      The written text was a pervasive feature of cultural practices in the medieval Middle East. At the heart of book circulation stood libraries that experienced a rapid expansion from the twelfth century onwards. While the existence of these libraries is well known our knowledge of their content and structure has been very limited as hardly any medieval Arabic catalogues have been preserved. This book discusses the largest and earliest medieval library of the Middle East for which we have documentation – the Ashrafiya library in the very centre of Damascus – and edits its catalogue. This catalogue shows that even book collections attached to Sunni religious institutions could hold rather unexpected titles, such as stories from the 1001 Nights, manuals for traders, medical handbooks, Shiite prayers, love poetry and texts extolling wine consumption. At the same time this library catalogue decisively expands our knowledge of how the books were spatially organised on the bookshelves of such a large medieval library. With over 2,000 entries this catalogue is essential reading for anybody interested in the cultural and intellectual history of Arabic societies. Setting the Ashrafiya catalogue into a comparative perspective with contemporaneous libraries on the British Isles this book opens new perspectives for the study of medieval libraries. ; This book discusses the largest and earliest medieval library of the Middle East for which we have documentation – the Ashrafiya library in the very centre of Damascus – and edits its catalogue. ; Acknowledgements; Introduction; 1. The Making and Unmaking of a Medieval Library; 2. Organising the Library: The Books on the Shelves; 3. Plurality and Diversity: The Profile of a Medieval Library; 4. The Ashrafiya Catalogue: Translation and Title Identification; 5. The Ashrafiya Catalogue: Edition; Bibliography; Index; Maps, tables and figures; Plates. ; AcknowledgementsIntroduction1. The Making and Unmaking of a Medieval Library2. Organising the Library: The Books on the Shelves3. Plurality and Diversity: The Profile of a Medieval Library4. The Ashrafiya Catalogue: Translation and Title Identification5. The Ashrafiya Catalogue: EditionBibliographyIndexMaps, tables and figuresPlates

    • History
      January 2018

      Violence in Islamic Thought from the Mongols to European Imperialism

      by Robert Gleave, István Kristó-Nagy

      The violent conquest of the eastern part of the lands under Muslim rule by the Mongols marked a new period in the history of Islamic civilisation and in attitudes towards violence. This volume examines the various intellectual and cultural reactions of Muslim thinkers to these events, both within and without the territories subjected to Mongol control. Each chapter examines how violent acts were assessed by Muslim intellectuals, analysing both changes and continuity within Islamic thought over time. Each chapter is structured around a case study in which violent acts are justified or condemned, revealing the variety of attitudes to violence in the medieval period. They are framed by a detailed introduction, focusing on theoretical perspectives on violence and religion and their application, or otherwise, to medieval Islam. ; This book examines how violent acts were assessed by Muslim intellectuals, analysing both changes and continuity within Islamic thought over time. ; Dates and Abbreviations; List of Figures and Tables; 1. Introduction, Robert Gleave and István T. Kristó-Nagy; Part 1. The Mongols and Their Aftermath; 2. Violence and Non-Violence in the Mongol Conquest of Baghdad (1258), Michal Biran; 3. The Mongols as the Scourge of God in the Islamic World, Timothy May; 4. Yāsā and Sharīʿa Islamic Attitudes toward the Mongol Law in the Turco-Mongolian World (From The Golden Horde To Timur's Time), István Vásáry; 5. Unacceptable Violence as Legitimation in Mongol and Timurid Iran, Beatrice Manz; Part 2. Violence in Religious Thought; 6. Reconciling Ibn Taymiyya’s Legitimization of Violence with His Vision of Universal Salvation, Jon Hoover; 7. Moral Violence in the Aḥkām Al-Dhimma of Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya, Marie Thérèse Urvoy; 8. Al-Karakī, Jihād, the State and Legitimate Violence in Imāmī Jurisprudence, Robert Gleave; Part 3. Violence in Philosophical Thought; 9. Legitimate and Illegitimate Violence in Arabic Political Philosophy: Al-Fārābī, Ibn Rushd and Ibn Khaldūn, Miklós Maróth; 10. Soft and Hard Power in Islamic Advice Literature, Syros Vasileios; Part 4. Representing Violence; 11. Old Images in New Skins: Flaying in The Iranian Visual Tradition, Iván Szántó; 12. Warrant for Genocide? Ottoman Propaganda against The Qizilbash, Colin Imber; Bibliography; Index Of Qurʾānic Citations; General Index. ; Dates and AbbreviationsList of Figures and Tables1. Introduction, Robert Gleave and István T. Kristó-Nagy PART 1. The Mongols and their Aftermath2. Violence and non-violence in the Mongol conquest of Baghdad (1258), Michal Biran3. The Mongols as the Scourge of God in the Islamic World, Timothy May 4. Yāsā and sharīʿa Islamic Attitudes toward the Mongol Law in the Turco-Mongolian World (from the Golden Horde to Timur's Time), István Vásáry5. Unacceptable violence as legitimation in Mongol and Timurid Iran, Beatrice Manz Part 2. Violence in Religious Thought6. Reconciling Ibn Taymiyya’s Legitimization of Violence with His Vision of Universal Salvation, Jon Hoover7. Moral Violence in the Aḥkām al-Dhimma of Ibn Qayyim al-JawziyYa, Marie Thérèse Urvoy8. Al-Karakī, Jihād, the State and Legitimate Violence in Imāmī Jurisprudence, Robert Gleave Part 3. Violence in Philosophical Thought9. Legitimate and illegitimate violence in Arabic political philosophy: al-Fārābī, Ibn Rushd and Ibn Khaldūn, Miklós Maróth10. Soft and Hard Power in Islamic Advice Literature, Syros Vasileios Part 4. Representing Violence11. Old Images in New Skins: Flaying in the Iranian Visual Tradition, Iván Szántó12. Warrant for genocide? Ottoman propaganda against the Qizilbash, Colin Imber BibliographyIndex of Qurʾānic CitationsGeneral Index

    • History
      February 2017

      Women in Mongol Iran

      The Khatuns, 1206-1335

      by Bruno De Nicola

      This book shows the development of women’s status in the Mongol Empire from its original homeland in Mongolia up to the end of the Ilkhanate of Iran in 1335. Taking a thematic approach, the chapters show a coherent progression of this development and contextualise the evolution of the role of women in medieval Mongol society. The arrangement serves as a starting point from where to draw comparison with the status of Mongol women in the later period. Exploring patterns of continuity and transformation in the status of these women in different periods of the Mongol Empire as it expanded westwards into the Islamic world, the book offers a view on the transformation of a nomadic-shamanist society from its original homeland in Mongolia to its settlement in the mostly sedentary-Muslim Iran in the mid-13th century. ; This book shows the development of women’s status in the Mongol Empire from its original homeland in Mongolia up to the end of the Ilkhanate of Iran in 1335. ; List of Illustrations; Acknowledgements; A Note on Transliteration; Maps; Introduction: The Study of Women in the Mongol Empire; 1. Women and Politics from the Steppes to World Empire; 2. Regents and Empresses: Women’s Rule in the Mongols’ World Empire; 3. Political Involvement and Women’s Rule in the Ilkhanate; 4. Women and the Economy of the Mongol Empire; 5. Mongol Women’s Encounters with Eurasian Religions; 6. Concluding Remarks; Glossary; List of Abbreviations; Bibliography; Index. ; List of IllustrationsAcknowledgements A Note on Transliteration Maps Introduction: The study of women in the Mongol Empire 1. Women and Politics from the Steppes to World Empire 2. Regents and Empresses: Women’s Rule in the Mongols’ World Empire 3. Political Involvement and Women’s Rule in the Ilkhanate 4. Women and the Economy of the Mongol Empire 5. Mongol Women’s Encounters with Eurasian Religions 6. Concluding Remarks Glossary List of Abbreviations Bibliography Index

    • History
      March 2017

      Islamisation

      Comparative Perspectives from History

      by A. C. S. Peacock

      The spread of Islam and the process of Islamisation (meaning both conversion to Islam and the adoption of Muslim culture) is explored in the twenty-four chapters of this volume. Taking a comparative perspective, both the historical trajectory of Islamisation and the methodological problems in its study are addressed, with coverage moving from Africa to China and from the seventh century to the start of the colonial period in 1800. Key questions are addressed. What is meant by Islamisation? How far was the spread of Islam as a religion bound up with the spread of Muslim culture? To what extent are Islamisation and conversion parallel processes? How is Islamisation connected to Arabisation? What role do vernacular Muslim languages play in the promotion of Muslim culture? The broad, comparative perspective allows readers to develop a thorough understanding of the process of Islamisation over eleven centuries of its history. ; The spread of Islam and the process of Islamisation (meaning both conversion to Islam and the adoption of Muslim culture) is explored in the 25 chapters of this volume. ; List of Figures; Acknowledgements; Notes on Contributors; 1. Introduction: Comparative Perspectives on Islamisation, A.C.S. Peacock; I. Conversion and Islamisation: Theoretical approaches; 2. Global Patterns of Ruler Conversion to Islam and the Logic of Empirical Religiosity, Alan Strathern; 3. Conversion out of Personal Principle: ʿAli b. Rabban al-Tabari (d. c. 860) and ʿAbdallah al-Tarjuman (d. c. 1430), Two Converts from Christianity to Islam, David Thomas; 4. The Conversion Curve Revisited, Richard W. Bulliet; II. The early Islamic and Medieval Middle East 5. What did Conversion to Islam mean in Seventh-Century Arabia?, Harry Munt; 6. Zoroastrian Fire Temples and the Islamisation of Sacred Space in Early Islamic Iran, Andrew D. Magnusson; 7. ‘There is no god but God’: Islamisation and Religious Code Switching, eighth to tenth centuries, Anna Chrysostomides; 8. Islamisation in Medieval Anatolia, A.C.S. Peacock; 9. Islamisation in the Southern Levant after the End of Frankish Rule: Some General Considerations and a Short Case Study, Reuven Amitai; III. The Muslim West; 10. Conversion of the Berbers to Islam/Islamisation of the Berbers, Michael Brett; 11. The Islamisation of al-Andalus: Recent Studies and Debates, Maribel Fierro; IV. Sub-Saharan Africa; 12. The Oromo and the Historical Process of Islamisation in Ethiopia, Marco Demichelis; 13. The Archaeology of Islamisation in Sub-Saharan Africa, Timothy Insoll; V. The Balkans; 14. The Islamisation of Ottoman Bosnia: Myths and Matters, Sanja Kadrić; 15. From Shahāda to ‘Aqīda: Conversion to Islam, Catechisation, and Sunnitisation in Sixteenth-Century Ottoman Rumeli , Tijana Krstić; VI. Central Asia; 16. Islamisation on the Iranian Periphery: Nasir-i Khusraw and Ismailism in Badakhshan, Daniel Beben; 17. Khwaja Ahmad Yasavi as an Islamising Saint: Rethinking the Role of Sufis in the Islamisation of the Turks of Central Asia, Devin DeWeese; 18. The Role of the Domestic Sphere in the Islamisation of the Mongols, Bruno De Nicola; VII. South Asia; 19. Reconsidering ‘Conversion to Islam’ in Indian History, Richard M. Eaton; 20. Civilising the Savage: Myth, History, and Persianisation in the Early Delhi Courts of South Asia, Blain Auer; VIII. Southeast Asia and the Far East; 21. China and the Rise of Islam on Java, Alexander Wain; 22. The Story of Yusuf and Indonesia’s Islamisation: A Work of Literature Plus, E.P. Wiering; 23. Persian Kings, Arab conquerors, and Malay Islam: Comparative perspectives on the place of Muslim epics in the Islamisation of the Chams, Philipp Bruckmayer 24. Islamisation and Sinicisation: Inversions, Reversions and Alternate Versions of Islam in China, James D. Frankel. ; FiguresAcknowledgementsNotes on Contributors Introduction: Comparative Perspectives on Islamisation, A.C.S. Peacock Conversion and Islamisation: Theoretical approaches Global Patterns of Ruler Conversion to Islam and the Logic of Empirical Religiosity, Alan Strathern Conversion out of Personal Principle: ʿAli b. Rabban al-Tabari (d. c. 860) and ʿAbdallah al-Tarjuman (d. c. 1430), Two Converts from Christianity to Islam, David Thomas The Conversion Curve Revisited, Richard W. Bulliet The early Islamic and Medieval Middle East What did Conversion to Islam mean in Seventh-Century Arabia?, Harry Munt Zoroastrian Fire Temples and the Islamisation of Sacred Space in Early Islamic Iran, Andrew D. Magnusson ‘There is no god but God’: Islamisation and Religious Code Switching, eighth to tenth centuries, Anna Chrysostomides Islamisation in Medieval Anatolia, A.C.S. Peacock Islamisation in the Southern Levant after the End of Frankish Rule: Some General Considerations and a Short Case Study, Reuven Amitai The Muslim West Conversion of the Berbers to Islam/Islamisation of the Berbers, Michael Brett The Islamisation of al-Andalus: Recent Studies and Debates, Maribel Fierro Sub-Saharan Africa The Oromo and the Historical Process of Islamisation in Ethiopia, Marco Demichelis The Archaeology of Islamisation in Sub-Saharan Africa, Timothy Insoll The Balkans The Islamisation of Ottoman Bosnia: Myths and Matters, Sanja Kadrić From Shahāda to ‘Aqīda: Conversion to Islam, Catechisation, and Sunnitisation in Sixteenth-Century Ottoman Rumeli, Tijana Krstić Central Asia Islamisation on the Iranian Periphery: Nasir-i Khusraw and Ismailism in Badakhshan, Daniel Beben Khwaja Ahmad Yasavi as an Islamising Saint: Rethinking the Role of Sufis in the Islamisation of the Turks of Central Asia, Devin DeWeese The Role of the Domestic Sphere in the Islamisation of the Mongols, Bruno De Nicola South Asia Reconsidering ‘Conversion to Islam’ in Indian History, Richard M. Eaton Civilising the Savage: Myth, History, and Persianisation in the Early Delhi Courts of South Asia, Blain Auer Southeast Asia and the Far East China and the Rise of Islam on Java, Alexander Wain The Story of Yusuf and Indonesia’s Islamisation: A Work of Literature Plus, E.P. Wiering Persian Kings, Arab conquerors, and Malay Islam: Comparative perspectives on the place of Muslim epics in the Islamisation of the Chams, Philipp Bruckmayer Islamisation and Sinicisation: Inversions, Reversions and Alternate Versions of Islam in China, James D. Frankel

    • History
      September 2016

      Violence in Islamic Thought from the Qurʾan to the Mongols

      by Robert Gleave, István Kristó-Nagy

      How was violence justified in early Islam? What role did violent actions play in the formation and maintenance of the Muslim political order? How did Muslim thinkers view the origins and acceptability of violence? These questions are addressed by an international range of eminent authors through both general accounts of types of violence and detailed case studies of violent acts drawn from the early Islamic sources. Violence is understood, widely, to include jihād, state repressions and rebellions, and also more personally directed violence against victims (women, animals, children, slaves) and criminals. By understanding the early development of Muslim thinking around violence, our comprehension of subsequent trends in Islamic thought, during the medieval period and up to the modern day, become clearer. ; This volume brings together some of the leading researchers on early Islamic history and thought to study the legitimacy of violence. ; 1. Violence, Our Inherent Heritage: Introduction, Istvan T. Kristo-Nagy and Robert Gleave; Section I. Jihaad and Conquest: Attitudes to Violence against the External Enemies of the Muslim Community; 2. The Question of Divine Help in the Jihad, Dominique Urvoy; 3. Reading the Qur’an on jihad: two early exegetical texts, Andrew Rippin; 4. Ibn al-Mubarak’s Kitab al-Jihad and early renunciant literature, Christopher Melchert; 5. Shaping Memory of the Conquests: The Case of Tustar, Sarah Bowen Savant; Section II. The Challenged Establishment: Attitudes to Violence against the State and in its Defence within the Muslim Community; 6. Who Instigated Violence: A Rebelling Devil or a Vengeful God?, Istvan T. Kristo-Nagy; 7. Attitudes to the use of fire in executions in late antiquity and early Islam: the burning of heretics and rebels in late Umayyad Iraq, Andrew Marsham; 8. 'Abbasid State Violence and the Execution of Ibn 'A'isha, John A. Nawas; 9. The Sultan and the Defiant Prince in Hunting Competition: Questions of legitimacy in hunting episodes of Ṭabaristan, Miklos Sarkozy; Section III. Lust and Flesh: Attitudes to Violence against the Defenceless, Intra-Communitarian Violence by Non-State Actors; 10. Violence against Women in Andalusi Historical Sources (third/ninth-seventh/thirteenth centuries), Maribel Fierro; 11. Sexual Violence in Verse: The Case of Ji'thin, al-Farazdaq’s sister, Geert Jan van Gelder; 12. Bandits, Michael Cooperson; 13. Eating People Is Wrong: Some Eyewitness Accounts of Cannibalism in Arabic Sources, Zoltan Szombathy 14. Animals Would Follow Shafi'ism: Legitimate and illegitimate violence to animals in Medieval Islamic Thought, Sarra Tlili; Bibliography; Index. ; 1. Violence, Our Inherent Heritage: Introduction, Istvan T. Kristo-Nagy and Robert Gleave Section I. Jihaad and Conquest: Attitudes to Violence against the External Enemies of the Muslim Community 2. The Question of Divine Help in the Jihad, Dominique Urvoy3. Reading the Qur’an on jihad: two early exegetical texts, Andrew Rippin4. Ibn al-Mubarak’s Kitab al-Jihad and early renunciant literature, Christopher Melchert5. Shaping Memory of the Conquests: The Case of Tustar, Sarah Bowen Savant Section II. The Challenged Establishment: Attitudes to Violence against the State and in its Defence within the Muslim Community 6. Who Instigated Violence: A Rebelling Devil or a Vengeful God?, Istvan T. Kristo-Nagy7. Attitudes to the use of fire in executions in late antiquity and early Islam: the burning of heretics and rebels in late Umayyad Iraq, Andrew Marsham8. 'Abbasid State Violence and the Execution of Ibn 'A'isha, John A. Nawas9. The Sultan and the Defiant Prince in Hunting Competition: Questions of legitimacy in hunting episodes of Ṭabaristan, Miklos Sarkozy Section III. Lust and Flesh: Attitudes to Violence against the Defenceless, Intra-Communitarian Violence by Non-State Actors 10. Violence against Women in Andalusi Historical Sources (third/ninth-seventh/thirteenth centuries), Maribel Fierro11. Sexual Violence in Verse: The Case of Ji'thin, al-Farazdaq’s sister, Geert Jan van Gelder12. Bandits, Michael Cooperson13. Eating People Is Wrong: Some Eyewitness Accounts of Cannibalism in Arabic Sources, Zoltan Szombathy14. Animals Would Follow Shafi'ism: Legitimate and illegitimate violence to animals in Medieval Islamic Thought, Sarra Tlili BibliographyIndex

    • Humanities & Social Sciences
      June 2018

      Islamists and the Politics of the Arab Uprisings

      Governance, Pluralisation and Contention

      by Hendrik Kraetzschmar, Paola Rivetti

      What role does political Islam play in the genealogy of protests as an instrument to resist neo-liberalism and authoritarian rule? How can we account for the internal conflicts among Islamist players after the 2011/2012 Arab uprisings? How can we assess the performance of Islamist parties in power? What geopolitical reconfigurations have the uprisings created, and what opportunities have arisen for Islamists to claim a stronger political role in domestic and regional politics? These questions are addressed in this book, which looks at the dynamics in place during the aftermath of the Arab uprisings in a wide range of countries across the Middle East and North Africa.

    • Humanities & Social Sciences
      June 2018

      Islamists and the Politics of the Arab Uprisings

      Governance, Pluralisation and Contention

      by Hendrik Kraetzschmar, Paola Rivetti

      What role does political Islam play in the genealogy of protests as an instrument to resist neo-liberalism and authoritarian rule? How can we account for the internal conflicts among Islamist players after the 2011/2012 Arab uprisings? How can we assess the performance of Islamist parties in power? What geopolitical reconfigurations have the uprisings created, and what opportunities have arisen for Islamists to claim a stronger political role in domestic and regional politics? These questions are addressed in this book, which looks at the dynamics in place during the aftermath of the Arab uprisings in a wide range of countries across the Middle East and North Africa.

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