• Archaeological methodology & techniques
      March 2016

      Saving The Tsars' Palaces

      by Christopher Morgan & Irina Orlova

      Millions of people annually visit the great country palaces built by the tsars in a circle round St. Petersburg. Created by artists from all over Europe, with untold serf labour at their disposal, the palaces were intended to impress and they do. Today, in the corner of most rooms, a single black and white photograph shows the same room in 1944, amid the smouldering wreckage found by Russian soldiers returning after the three-year siege of Leningrad. Forced to abandon the palaces, the Nazis vented their anger on the treasures they occupied.The story behind these photographs is in many ways more impressive even than the rooms themselves. It is the story of a relatively small band of talented Russians who were determined not to allow their country’s heritage to be swept away by all the horrors of the twentieth century. The palaces today are truly the work of Russians but restorers have to be self-effacing. There have been books about what they did but not about them. In Saving The Tsars’ Palaces, Christopher Morgan and Irina Orlova vividly recount the remarkable story of those who battled to save the palaces, not just during and after the war, but during the Revolution and the harsh times that followed.

    • Museums & museology
      April 2012

      Museum Basics

      by Timothy Ambrose

      Museums throughout the world have common needs and face common challenges. Keeping up-to-date with new ideas and changing practice is challenging for small and medium-sized museums where time for reading and training is often restricted. This new edition of Museum Basics has therefore been produced for the many museums worldwide that operate with limited resources and few professional staff. The comprehensive training course provided within the book is also suitable for museum studies students who wish to gain a full understanding of work within a museum.Drawing from a wide range of practical experience, the authors provide a basic guide to all aspects of museum work, from audience development and education, through collections management and conservation, to museum organisation and forward planning. Organised on a modular basis with over 110 Units, Museum Basics can be used as a reference work to assist day-to-day museum management and as the key textbook in pre-service and in-service training programmes. It is designed to be supplemented by case studies, project work and group discussion.This third edition has been fully updated and extended to take account of the many changes that have occurred in the world of museums in the last five years. It includes over 100 new diagrams supporting the text, a glossary, sources of information and support as well as a select bibliography. Museum Basics is also now supported by its own companion website providing a wide range of additional resources for the reader.

    • Archaeology by period / region

      Aztec Ceremonial Landscape

      by William L. Fash (Foreword), David Carrasco (Author, Editor)

      Contents: Notes on the Oldest Structure of El Tempo Mayor at Tenochtitlan; A Study of Skeletal Materials from Tlatelolco; Discovery of a Painted Mural at Tlatelolco; The Mt. Tlaloc Project; The Sacrifice of Tezcatlipoca -- To Change Place; Mapping the Ritual Landscape -- Debt Payment to Tlaloc During the Month of Atlcahualo; The Sacred Landscape of Aztec Calendar Festivals -- Myth, Nature and Society; Migration Histories as Ritual Performance; The Myth of the Half-Man Who Descended from the Sky; The Octli Cult in Late Pre-Hispanic Central Mexico; Dryness Before the Rains -- Taxcatl and Tezcatlipoca; Reflection on the Miraculous Waters of Tenochtitlan; Vamos a Rezar a San Marcos -- A Tlapanec Pilgrimage; Eating Landscape -- Human Sacrifice and Sustenance in Aztec Mexico; Religious Rationalisation and the Conversions of the Nahuas -- Social Organisation and Colonial Epistemology; Remnants of the Shaman.

    • Archaeology by period / region

      Moctezuma's Mexico

      Visions of the Aztec World, Revised Edition

      by David Carrasco

      Updated with a new chapter by Davíd Carrasco describing how the Aztec world has been re-imagined by modern Mexican American communities and Chicano scholars, 'Moctezuma's Mexico' is a lavishly illustrated volume that provides an in-depth historical profile of the Aztec empire on the eve of its fateful encounter with the Europeans. Beginning with an exploration of Aztec history and cosmovision, the authors and two other prominent scholars-Anthony Aveni and Elizabeth Hill Boone-examine Aztec ceremonies, astronomy, myths, rhetoric, and moral philosophy, as well as controversies in recent Aztec scholarship using poetry, sculpture, painting, and the archaeological record. With nearly 150 full-colour illustrations, 'Moctezuma's Mexico' is an important and handsome book that will appeal to scholars and students of Mexico's indigenous past.

    • Archaeology by period / region

      Identity, Feasting, & the Archaeology of the Greater Southwest

      Proceedings of the 2002 Southwest Symposium

      by Barbara J Mills

      With contributions from sociocultural and linguistic anthropologists as well as archaeologists, this volume is the first to present case studies of social identity and feasting from throughout the Greater Southwest. A section of the book is also devoted to a synthesis and set of case studies on the archaeology of the pivotal Mexican State of Chihuahua. Unlike many previous studies, the authors of this volume place emphasis on how differences within and between societies came about rather than why dissimilar structures arose, elevating the place of both agency and history in understanding the past. Identity, Feasting, and the Archaeology of the Greater Southwest will be of interest to all doing archaeological research in the Southwestern United States and those conducting research on social identity, cultural affiliation, and commensal politics.

    • Archaeology by period / region

      Commoner Ritual and Ideology in Ancient Mesoamerica

      by Nancy Gonlin (Editor) , Jon C Lohse (Editor)

      Were most commoners in ancient Mesoamerica poor? In a material sense, yes, probably so. Were they poor in their beliefs and culture? Certainly not, as "Commoner Ritual and Ideology in Ancient Mesoamerica" demonstrates. This volume explores the ritual life of Mesoamerica's common citizens, inside and outside of the domestic sphere, from Formative through Postclassic periods. Building from the premise that ritual and ideological expression inhered at all levels of society in Mesoamerica, the contributors demonstrate that ideology did not emanate solely from exalted individuals and that commoner ritual expression was not limited to household contexts. Taking an empirical approach to this under-studied and under-theorised area, contributors use material evidence to discover how commoner status conditioned the expression of ideas and values. Revealing complex social hierarchies that varied across time and region, this volume offers theoretical approaches to commoner ideology, religious practice, and socio-political organisation and builds a framework for future study of the correlation of ritual and ideological expression with social position for Mesoamericanists and archaeologists worldwide.

    • Archaeology

      The Incas

      by Nigel Davies

      The Inca Empire's immense territory spanned more than 2,000 miles -- from Ecuador to Chile -- at the time of the Spanish invasion, yet Inca culture remains largely a mystery. The Incas did not leave pictorial codices and documents in their native language as the Maya and Aztec did and they narrated to Spanish chroniclers just a few of the multiple alternative histories maintained by descendants of various rulers. In this classic work, Nigel Davies offers a clear view into Inca political history, economy, governance, religion, art, architecture, and daily life. The Incas has become a classic in its ten years in print; readers and scholars interested in ancient American cultures will relish this new paperback edition.

    • Archaeology

      Archaeology Without Borders

      Contact, Commerce, and Change in the U.S. Southwest and Northwestern Mexico

      by Maxine E McBrinn (Editor) , Laurie D Webster (Editor)

      Offers a synthesis of early agricultural adaptations in the region, groundbreaking archaeological research on social identity, and data previously not readily available to English-speaking readers. The twenty-four essays discuss early agriculture, social identity, and cultural landscapes, as well as economic and social interactions within the area now encompassed by northern Mexico and the US Southwest. Contributors examining early agricultural adaptations offer models for understanding the transition to agriculture, explore relationships between the spread of agriculture and Uto-Aztecan migrations, and present data from Arizona, New Mexico, and Chihuahua. Contributors focusing on social identity discuss migration, enculturation, social boundaries, and ethnic identities. They draw on case studies that include diverse artefact classes -- rock art, lithics, architecture, murals, ceramics, cordage, sandals, baskets, faunal remains, and oral histories. Mexican scholars present data from Chihuahua, Durango, Zacatecas, Michoacan, Coahuila, and Nuevo Leon. They address topics including Spanish-indigenous conflicts, archaeological history, cultural landscapes, and interactions among Mesoamerica, northern Mexico, and the US Southwest.

    • Archaeology

      Frontiers in Colorado Paleoindian Archaeology

      From the Dent Site to the Rocky Mountains

      by Robert H Brunswig (Editor) , Bonnie L Pitblado (Editor)

      As the Ice Age waned, Clovis hunter-gatherers began to explore and colonize the area now known as Colorado. Their descendents and later Paleoindian migrants spread throughout Colorado's plains and mountains, adapting to diverse landforms and the changing climate. In this new volume, Robert H Brunswig and Bonnie L. Pitblado assemble experts in archaeology, paleoecology-climatology, and paleofaunal analysis to share new discoveries about these ancient people of Colorado. A review of seventy-five years of Paleoindian archaeology in Colorado highlights the foundation on which new work builds, and a survey of Colorado's ancient climates and ecologies helps readers understand Paleoindian settlement patterns. Eight essays discuss archaeological evidence from Plains to high Rocky Mountain sites. The book offers the most thorough analysis to date of Dent -- the first Clovis site discovered. Essays on mountain sites show how advances in methodology and technology have allowed scholars to reconstruct settlement patterns and changing lifeways in this challenging environment.

    • Archaeology

      Archaeological Landscapes on the High Plains

      by Laura L. Scheiber (Editor) , Bonnie J. Clark (Editor)

      This book combines history, anthropology, archaeology, and geography to take a closer look at the relationships between land and people in this unique North American region. Focusing on long-term change, this book considers ethnographic literature, archaeological evidence, and environmental data spanning thousands of years of human presence to understand human perception and construction of landscape. The contributors offer cohesive and synthetic studies emphasising hunter-gatherers and subsistence farmers. Using landscape as both reality and metaphor, the book explores the different and changing ways that people interacted with place in this transitional zone between the Rocky Mountains and the eastern prairies. The contemporary archaeologists working in this small area have chosen diverse approaches to understand the past and its relationship to the present. Through these ten case studies, this variety is highlighted but leads to a common theme--that the High Plains contains important locales to which people, over generations or millennia, return. Providing both data and theory on a region that has not previously received much attention from archaeologists, especially compared with other regions in North America, this volume is a welcome addition to the literature. Contributors: Paul Burnett; Oskar Burger; Minette C Church; Philip Duke; Kevin Gilmore; Eileen Johnson; Mark D Mitchell; Michael R Peterson; Lawrence Todd.

    • Archaeology

      Denver

      An Archaeological History

      by Sarah Nelson

      A vivid account of the prehistory and history of Denver as revealed in its archaeological record, this book invites us to imagine Denver as it once was. Around 12,000 BC, groups of leather-clad Paleoindians passed through the juncture of the South Platte River and Cherry Creek, following the herds of mammoth or buffalo they hunted. In the Archaic period, people rested under the shade of trees along the riverbanks, with baskets full of plums as they waited for rabbits to be caught in their nearby snares. In the early Ceramic period, a group of mourners adorned with yellow pigment on their faces and beads of eagle bone followed Cherry Creek to the South Platte to attend a funeral at a neighbouring village. And in 1858, the area was populated by the crude cottonwood log shacks with dirt floors and glassless windows, the homes of Denver's first inhabitants. For at least 10,000 years, Greater Denver has been a collection of diverse lifeways and survival strategies, a crossroads of interaction, and a locus of cultural coexistence. Setting the scene with detailed descriptions of the natural environment, summaries of prehistoric sites, and archaeologists' knowledge of Denver's early inhabitants, Nelson and her colleagues bring the region's history to life. From prehistory to the present, this is a compelling narrative of Denver's cultural heritage that will fascinate lay readers, amateur archaeologists, professional archaeologists, and academic historians alike.

    • Archaeology

      Ice Age Hunters of the Rockies

      by Jane S Day (Editor) , Dennis J Stanford (Editor)

      Explores the many questions that still surround the Pleistocene cultures of 12,000 years ago and the adaptations of these early civilisations to the last great ice age, covering issues such as the time of arrival of the first Americans, adaptation to various environments, and the use by early people of high-altitude sites.

    • Archaeology

      Traditions, Transitions, and Technologies

      Themes in Southwestern Archaeology

      by Sarah S Schlanger

      This book offers diverse perspectives on the state of South-western archaeology at the end of the twentieth century, linking the legacies of the past to present trends by placing current research into historical context. Organised around classic themes central to the history of the discipline, this volume explores important new research avenues for understanding the connections between historic Pueblo communities and their distant ancestors, the origins of farming traditions, and the development of the Southwest's distinctive tools and technologies. Providing a unique overview of past and present work in this important region, 'Traditions, Transitions, and Technologies' will be of interest to all doing archaeological research in the South-western United States.

    • Archaeology

      Encounter with the Plumed Serpent

      Drama and Power in the Heart of Mesoamerica

      by Gabina Aurora Pérez Jiménez , Maarten Jansen

      The Mixtec, or the people of Ñuu Savi (Nation of the Rain God), one of the major civilizations of ancient Mesoamerica, made their home in the highlands of Oaxaca, where they resisted both Aztec military expansion and the Spanish conquest. In 'Encounter with the Plumed Serpent', two leading scholars present and interpret the sacred histories narrated in the Mixtec codices, the largest surviving collection of pre-Columbian manuscripts in existence. In these screenfold books, ancient painter-historians chronicled the politics of the Mixtec from approximately ad900 to 1521, portraying the royal families, rituals, wars, alliances, and ideology of the times. By analysing and cross-referencing the codices, which have been fragmented and dispersed in far-flung archives, the authors attempt to reconstruct Mixtec history. Their synthesis here builds on long examination of the ancient manuscripts. Adding useful interpretation and commentary, Jansen and Pérez Jiménez synthesise the large body of surviving documents into the first unified narrative of Mixtec sacred history.

    • Archaeology

      Inside Ancient Kitchens

      New Directions in the Study of Daily Meals & Feasts

      by Elizabeth A Klarich

      The anthropology of food is an area of research in which economic, social, and political dynamics interact in incredibly complex ways. Using archaeological case studies from around the globe, Inside Ancient Kitchens presents new perspectives on the comparative study of prehistoric meals from Peru to the Philippines. Inside Ancient Kitchens builds upon the last decade of feasting studies and presents two unique goals for broadening the understanding of prehistoric meals. First, the volume focuses on the study of meal preparation through the analysis of temporary and permanent kitchen areas. This move to focus "behind the scenes" is aimed at determining how, where, and by whom meals were financed and prepared. Secondly, data from these preparation contexts are used to differentiate between household-level and suprahousehold-level meals in each case study, resulting in more nuanced typologies of daily meals, feasts, and other food-related events. Inside Ancient Kitchens presents an important step in the development of new methodological and theoretical approaches within the anthropology of food and will be of great interest to scholars studying the social dynamics, labour organisation, and political relationships underlying prehistoric meals.

    • Archaeology

      Topiltzin Quetzalcoatl

      The Once & Future Lord of the Toltecs

      by H B Nicholson

      This is the most comprehensive survey and discussion of the primary documentary sources and the relevant archaeological evidence concerning the most enigmatic figure of ancient Mesoamerica. Probably no indigenous New World personage has aroused more interest or more controversy than this Lord of Tollan, capital of the Toltec Empire, who was merged with the prominent Feathered Serpent god, Quetzalcoatl. Professor Nicholson sorts through this wealth of material, classifying, summarising, and analysing all known primary accounts of the career of Topiltzin Quetzalcoatl, in the Spanish, Nahuatl, and Mayan languages, which Spanish missionaries and Spanish-educated natives recorded after the Conquest. In a new Introduction, he updates the original source material presently available to scholars concerned with this figure. After careful consideration of the evidence, he concludes that, in spite of the obvious myth surrounding this renowned Toltec priest-ruler, at least some of Topiltzin Quetzalcoatl's recorded life and deeds are drawn from historical fact. Nicholson also contends that the tradition of his expected return probably played a role in the peaceable reception of Cortés by Moctezuma II in Mexico's Tenochtitlan in the fall of 1519. Includes new illustrations and an index.

    • Archaeology

      Quetzalcoatl and the Irony of Empire

      Myths and Prophecies in the Aztec Tradition, Revised Edition

      by David Carrasco

      David Carrasco draws from the perspectives of the history of religions, anthropology, and urban ecology to explore the nature of the complex symbolic form of Quetzalcoatl in the organisation, legitimation, and subversion of a large segment of the Mexican urban tradition. His new Preface addresses this tradition in the light of the Columbian quincentennial.

    • Archaeology by period / region

      In the Realm of Nachan Kan

      Postclassic Maya Archaeology at Laguna De On, Belize

      by Marilyn A Masson

      Kan opens a window on Post-Classic Maya patterns of cultural development and organisation through a close examination of the small rural island of Laguna de On, a location that was distant from the governing political centres of the day. Using diachronic analysis of regional settlement patterns, ceramic traditions, household and ritual features, and artefacts from the site, Masson tracks developmental changes throughout the Post-classic period. These data suggest that affluent patterns of economic production and local and long-distance exchange were established within northern Belize by the eleventh century, and continued to develop, virtually uninterrupted, until the time of Spanish arrival. In addition, Masson analyses contemporary political and religious artistic traditions at the temples of Mayapan, Tulum, and Santa Rita to provide a regional context for the changes in community patterns at Laguna de On. These cultural changes, she maintains, are closely correlated with the rise of Mayapan to power and participation of sites like Laguna de On in a pan-lowland economic and ritual interaction sphere. Offering a thoroughly new interpretation of Post-classic Mayan civilisation. This is a must for scholars of Mesoamerican history and culture.

    • Archaeology by period / region

      Mesoamerica's Classic Heritage

      From Teotihuacan to the Aztecs

      by Davíd Carrasco , Lindsay Jones , Scott Sessions

      For more than a millennium the great Mesoamerican city of Teotihuacan (c. 150 B.C.E. - 750 C.E.) has been imagined and reimagined by a host of subsequent cultures, including our own. Mesoamerica's Classic Heritage engages the subject of the unity and diversity of pre-Hispanic Mesoamerica by focusing on the classic heritage of this ancient city. This new volume is the product of several years of research by members of Princeton University's Moses Mesoamerican Archive and Research Project and Mexico's Proyecto Teotihuacán. Offering a variety of disciplinary perspectives - including the history of religions, anthropology, archaeology, and art history - and a wealth of new data, Mesoamerica's Classic Heritage examines Teotihuacan's rippling influence across Mesoamerican time and space, including important patterns of continuity and change, and its relationships, both historical and symbolic, with Tenochtitlan, Cholula, and various Maya communities. The contributors to Mesoamerica's Classic Heritage offer a wide range of individual interpretations, but they agree that Teotihuacan, more than any other pre-Hispanic center, was a paradigmatic source that formed the art and architecture, cosmology and ritual life, and conceptions of urbanism and political authority for significant parts of the Mesoamerican world. This great city achieved the prestige of being the site of the creation of the cosmos and of effective social and political space in Mesoamerica through its capacity to symbolize, perform, and export its imperial authority. These essays reveal the different ways in which Teotihuacan's classic heritage both fed and fed on the dynamic interactivity of the entire area. Whether or not a paradigm shift in Mesoamerican studies is taking place, certainly a new contextual understanding of Teotihuacan and the diversities and unities of Mesoamerica is emerging in these pages.

    • Archaeology by period / region

      Terminal Classic in the Maya Lowlands

      Collapse, Transition, & Transformation

      by Arthur A Demarest , Prudence M Rice , Don S Rice

      This book revisits one of the great problems in Mayan archaeology -- the apparent collapse of Classic Maya civilisation from roughly AD830-950. During this period the Maya abandoned their power centres in the southern lowlands and rather abruptly ceased the distinctive cultural practices that marked their apogee in the Classic period. Archaeological fieldwork during the past three decades, however, has uncovered enormous regional variability in the ways the Maya experienced the shift from Classic to Post-classic society, revealing a period of cultural change more complex than acknowledged by traditional models. Featuring an impressive roster of scholars, the book presents the most recent data and interpretations pertaining to this perplexing period of cultural transformation in the Maya lowlands. Although the research reveals clear interregional patterns, the contributors resist a single overarching explanation. Rather, this volume's diverse and nuanced interpretations provide a new, more properly grounded beginning for continued debate on the nature of lowland Terminal Classic Maya civilisation.

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