• Humanities & Social Sciences
      February 2017

      Fierce Imaginings

      The Great War, Ritual, Memory and God

      by Rachel Mann

      From Rachel Mann, Canon Poet-in-Residence at Manchester cathedral, comes a lyrical and very personal story of remembrance, faith, family and identity shaped by the chaos and trauma wrought by the Great War and the flux in early twentieth century Europe. Rachel brilliantly explores the significance of the War to all of us today who live under its long shadow – our shared memories, culture and the symbols and relics that linger on all around us, as well as the influence of the Great War on her grandparents and how it echoed through her childhood in 1970s Britain discovering her authentic self in God, undergoing a change of sex and experiencing chronic illness and disability. ;

    • Humanities & Social Sciences
      September 2017

      Der Erste Weltkrieg zur See

      by Michael Epkenhans, Stephan Huck

      Der Erste Weltkrieg war in erster Linie ein Krieg, der an verschiedenen Fronten in West-, Ost- und Südeuropa, aber auch im Mittleren Osten, in Afrika und im Fernen Pazifik ausgefochten wurde. Der Erste Weltkrieg war aber von Beginn an auch ein Seekrieg, ausgetragen auf den Ozeanen der Welt.Die Schlachten zu Lande dominieren nach wie vor das öffentliche Gedenken an den Ersten Weltkrieg. Das spiegelt sich auch in den großen neuen Erzählungen über das Kriegsgeschehen: Der Seekrieg wird hier allenfalls am Rande behandelt. Zudem haben nationale Perspektiven immer noch Vorrang vor vergleichenden Analysen. Vor diesem Hintergrund erschien es sinnvoll, mit einschlägigen Fachleuten Bilanz zu ziehen und neue Perspektiven der Forschung zu diskutieren.Auf der Grundlage des gegenwärtigen Forschungsstandes und aus internationaler, vergleichender Perspektive beleuchten daher in diesem Tagungsband Historiker aus Deutschland, Großbritannien und Kanada, aus den USA, Australien und Russland, aus Frankreich und Österreich die Planungen für den Krieg zur See, dessen Verlauf und dessen vielfältige Wandlungen, aber ebenso den Alltag in den damaligen Marinen sowie die verschiedenen Formen der Erinnerung an das Geschehen.

    • Humanities & Social Sciences
      May 2018

      Frieden durch Recht?

      Der Aufstieg des modernen Völkerrechts und der Friedensschluss nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg

      by Marcus M. Payk

      „Versailles" und die Verrechtlichung der internationalen Politik Bei keinem anderen Frieden der neuzeitlichen Geschichte spielte die Berufung auf Recht und Gerechtigkeit eine so prominente Rolle wie nach dem Ende des Ersten Weltkriegs. Im Gegensatz zu bisherigen Darstellungen, die sich vornehmlich auf eine Demütigung Deutschlands durch das „Versailler Diktat" konzentrieren, bietet diese breit angelegte Neuinterpretation der gesamten Pariser Friedenskonferenz von 1919/20 ein differenziertes Bild. Marcus Payk kann anhand zahlreicher Beispiele nachweisen, welche politische Kraft, aber auch welche unkontrollierbare Eigenlogik völkerrechtlichen Argumenten und Akteuren während der Friedensverhandlungen zukam. Erst durch die Berücksichtigung der normativen Erwartungen der Vorkriegs- und Kriegszeit werden die Friedensabkommen mit Deutschland, Österreich, Ungarn, Bulgarien und dem Osmanischen Reich verständlich. Die Untersuchung ordnet den Friedensschluss damit in längerfristige Tendenzen einer Verrechtlichung der internationalen Politik ein und fordert zugleich dazu auf, über die Möglichkeiten und Grenzen des Völkerrechts nachzudenken.

    • Humanities & Social Sciences
      June 2018

      Protektion und Souveränität

      Die Entwicklung imperialer Herrschaftsformen im 19. Jahrhundert

      by Wolfgang Egner

      Schutz scheint ein archaisches Konzept zu sein, das im Widerspruch zu einer internationalen Gemeinschaft aus gleichen, souveränen Staaten steht. Doch das 19. Jahrhundert, in dem der moderne Staat seine entscheidende Prägung erhielt, war zugleich das Zeitalter imperialer Schutzrhetorik und -herrschaft. Europäische Imperien erstreckten sich über nahezu den gesamten Globus. Diese legitimierten ihre Herrschaftsansprüche sowohl gegenüber Beherrschten als auch gegenüber der internationalen Gemeinschaft mit erbrachten Schutzleistungen. Zentrale Strategien waren universalistische Ideologien wie die Pax Britannica, die Schutz für die Einordnung in ein imperiales System versprachen. In den Außenbeziehungen wirkten diese imperialen Schutzvorstellungen auf das Völkerrecht ein und schufen in der Praxis der Diplomatie neue völkerrechtliche Status, die den herkömmlichen Vorstellungen einer vollständigen Souveränität widersprachen. Die Studie untersucht, sowohl wie und warum diese Formen entstanden sind, als auch wie durch sie das komplexe Verhältnis von Protektion und Souveränität neu erdacht worden ist. Dadurch leistet sie einen Beitrag zur Internationalen Geschichte, zur Kolonial- und Imperiengeschichte und zur Geschichte des Völkerrechts.

    • Warfare & defence
      September 2015

      The First World War

      Analysis and Interpretation, Volume 1

      by Editor(s): Antonello Biagini, Giovanna Motta

      This volume is the result of an international conference held at Sapienza University of Rome in June 2014, which brought together scholars from different countries to re-analyse and re-interpret the events of the First World War, one hundred years after a young Bosnian Serb student from the “Mlada Bosna,” Gavrilo Princip, “lit the fuse” and ignited the conflict which was to forever change the world. The Great War – initially on a European and then on a world scale – demonstrated the fragility of the international system of the European balance of powers, and determined the dissolution of the great multinational empires and the need to redraw the map of Europe according to the principles of national sovereignty. This book provides new insights into theories of this conflict, and is characterized by internationality, interdisciplinarity and a combination of different research methods. The contributions, based on archival documents from various different countries, international and local historiography, and on the analysis of newspaper articles, postcards, propaganda material, memorials and school books, examine ideological and historiographical debates, the memory of the war and its most important contemporary and popular narratives, and the use of propaganda for the mobilization of public opinion, in addition to military, social, political, economic and psychological aspects of the conflict.

    • Music: styles & genres
      March 2018

      William Orpen, an Outsider in France

      Painting and Writing World War One

      by Author(s): Caroline Gallois

      William Orpen (1878-1931) was in 1917 appointed as an official war artist in France. He not only saw the Great War as a call to paint serious subject-matter—enabling him to break away from the constraints of society portraiture in London—but also as an opportunity to write. Orpen was commissioned, along with artists such as Paul Nash, Stanley Spencer and Wyndham Lewis, to paint for the Department of Information. He was the only war artist to keep a written record of his wartime experience, published in 1921 as An Onlooker in France. In his Preface, Orpen rather too modestly states: “This book must not be considered as a serious work on life in France behind the lines, it is merely an attempt to record some certain little incidents that occurred in my own life there.” This art-historical study is a companion to this “attempt”. It examines, within the context of the global crisis that WWI was, and from various theoretical, philosophical and literary angles, his singular and at times provocative work. Orpen set out to provide a textual and visual record of life on the Western Front, as well as behind the lines—of what was supposed to be the “War to End all Wars”. For want of being a “fighting man”, the non-combatant artist-writer determined to fight with his own arms, his pens and brushes.

    • Humour
      July 2012

      Laughter in the Trenches

      Humour and Front Experience in German First World War Narratives

      by Author(s): Jakub Kazecki

      Laughter in the Trenches: Humour and Front Experience in German First World War Narratives explores the appearances and functions of humour and laughter in selected novels and short stories, based on autobiographical experiences, written by authors during the war and in the Weimar Era (1919–1933).This study focuses on popular and lesser-known works of German literature that played an important role in the socio-political life of the Weimar Republic: Storm of Steel by Ernst Jünger (1920), Advance from Mons 1914 by Walter Bloem (1916), The Case of Sergeant Grischa by Arnold Zweig (1927), and All Quiet on the Western Front by Erich Maria Remarque (1929). The author shows that these works often share surprisingly similar narrative strategies in describing humorous experiences and soldier laughter to justify direct violence and oppressive power structures, regardless of the works’ ideological assignment and their popular and critical reception.This book also examines the parodic imitations of All Quiet on the Western Front, the German text All Quiet on the Trojan Front by Emil Marius Requark (1930) and the American film So Quiet on the Canine Front by Zion Myers and Jules White (1931) as significant polemical contributions that use humoristic strategies to stress or undermine elements of the original text.

    • Military life & institutions
      May 2016

      Glimpsing Modernity

      Military Medicine in World War I

      by Editor(s): Stephen C. Craig, Dale C. Smith

      Glimpsing Modernity is a collection of papers presented at the US Army Medical Museum-sponsored conference on medical aspects of the First World War held in San Antonio, Texas, in February 2012. It captures the metamorphosis of military medicine during the war in a series of inter-related vignettes. Some of these stories provide new and insightful interpretations of known military medical themes, while others depart from these to examine less well-known, but truly important medical topics.

    • Archaeology
      January 2009

      Images of Conflict

      Military Aerial Photography and Archaeology

      by Editor(s): Birger Stichelbaut, Jean Bourgeois, Nicholas Saunders and Piet Chielens

      Striking aerial views of war, and of the scarred landscapes of its aftermath are the focus of this unique and multidisciplinary book. For the first time, the history, significance, and technology of military aerial photography are brought together and explored by military historians, archaeologists, and anthropologists. This new approach opens the door to a modern reassessment of military aerial imagery, reveals the concepts and philosophies that guided their production and interpretation, and illustrates the complex interaction between humans and technology in creating and understanding the landscapes of conflict.

    • Literature & Literary Studies
      October 2008

      Literatures of War

      by Editor(s): Richard Pine and Eve Patten

      “The most terrible disaster that one group of human beings can inflict on another is war. Wars cause misery on an indescribable scale. Yet we go on doing it to one another, generation after generation. Why? Warfare is a recurrent and universal characteristic of human existence. The mythologies of practically all peoples abound in wars and the superhuman deeds of warriors, and pre-literate communities apparently delighted in the recital of stories about battles. Since our species became literate a mere 5,000 years ago, written history has mostly been the history of wars. Thousands who knew war evidently sickened of it and dreamt of lasting peace, expressing their vision in literature and art, in philosophy and religion. They imagined Utopias freed of martial ambition and bloodshed which harked back to the Golden Age of classical antiquity, to the Christian vision of a paradise lost, and to the Arcadia of Greek and Latin poetry, so richly celebrated in the canvases of Claude and Poussin. All these things bear eloquent testimony to the human longing for peace, but they have not triumphed over our dreadfully powerful propensity to war.” —from the Introduction by Anthony StevensIn this multi-disciplinary collection of essays on the manifestations of war in poetry, fiction, drama, music and documentaries, scholars and practitioners from an international context describe the transformation of the war experience into chronicles of hope and despair, from Herodotus up to the present day.

    • Literature & Literary Studies
      August 2015

      Revisiting "Social Factors"

      Advancing Research into People and Place

      by Editor(s): Georgia Lindsay, Lusi Morhayim

      Research in Social Factors, also called Environment and Behavior Studies or Person-Environment Relations, is research into the human experience of the built environment. Even since its heyday in the 1970s and 1980s, as a response to the perceived failures of Modernism, Social Factors continues to ask questions about how people use space, and what meaning that space holds. This edited collection brings together cutting-edge research and contemporary issues into one book. Divided into two parts, the chapters in this collection demonstrate the continuing relevance of, and the wide array of topics in, the field.The first section, History and Future Outlook, addresses the field itself, investigating its history and common terms and updating seminal work. The second section, Perspectives on the User, surveys contemporary research into the human side of design, understanding the built environment through the lens of valuing “the user”, a term which encompasses everyone from Native Americans to children to adults with disabilities to entire cities devastated by tornadoes. Contributors to this volume include emerging and established scholars, as well as practitioners, and touch on issues of sustainability, history, culture, new media, disaster recovery, health, and recreation. This book will particularly appeal to scholars looking to keep abreast of current issues, students of the field endeavouring to understand their chosen subject, and practitioners exploring new strategies in understanding the clients they serve. The array of topics and perspectives examined here demonstrates a renaissance of Social Factors.

    • History
      February 2016

      Empires, Nations and Private Lives

      Essays on the Social and Cultural History of the Great War

      by Editor(s): Nari Shelekpayev, François-Olivier Dorais, Daria Dyakonova, Solène Maillet

      This book brings together a series of papers presented at a University of Montreal interdisciplinary conference held in March 2014 and devoted to various little-known facets of the First World War’s cultural and social history. The commemorative activities of the war’s centennial triggered the conference, as this anniversary had precipitated a lively renewal of historical reflections on the causes and consequences of this global conflict. If the commemoration was an occasion to foster a more civic-minded pedagogical approach regarding the meaning of this major historical event, the conference itself strove to engage the rich and substantial body of research about the war that had evolved over the past few decades. While taking national and regional approaches into account, this book also aligns itself with the recent interest in a global history of the Great War that, by not excluding various national traditions, strives to re-examine the causes and consequences of the conflict from a perspective whose scope extends beyond Europe. By engaging in a broader temporal and spatial consideration of the war, this standpoint not only calls into question the relevance of using the nation-state as a singular political and cultural framework with which to understand the conflict, but also, and especially, strives to more clearly apprehend peripheral geopolitical spaces, particularly Africa and the Americas, in the conflict and to integrate them more effectively.

    • Politics & government
      July 2006

      Ritual and Remembrance

      the Memorialisation of the Great War in East Kent

      by Author(s): Peter Donaldson

      This book seeks to explore the spate of memorial construction that took place at civic and local level in the immediate aftermath of the Great War. At the heart of the work lies an examination of the layering of memory in this commemorative activity as the war dead were remembered in their various different roles, as citizens, work colleagues, school alumni, club members, parishioners, regimental comrades and, of course, fathers, husbands and sons. The study concentrates on the major urban centres of Canterbury, Folkestone and Dover, each of which experienced something of a revival during the war years and sought to perpetuate this renewed standing through the rituals of remembrance. Yet, though the focus is on the conflicts and compromises that underpinned communal commemoration, sight is not lost of the private tragedies that lay at the heart of collective remembrance. In uncovering the process by which local dignitaries actively sought the participation of the bereaved in the rites of constructing a war memorial, not least through the compilation of the names of the fallen, an impression of the almost palpable sense of sorrow that pervaded society in the immediate aftermath of the fighting is captured.It is the impact of these conflicting claims, the tension that existed within this complex matrix of remembrance and the extent to which the memory of the fallen was shaped by the demands of competing schemes that forms the basis of this study. In particular the focus falls on the memorialisation process itself, the debates over form and style, the rituals of naming and financing and the ceremonies for unveiling and dedication, for it was in this often lengthy and convoluted process that those in authority could assume control over the rites of mourning and transform private grief into a public narrative.

    • First World War
      July 2011

      Other Combatants, Other Fronts

      Competing Histories of the First World War

      by Editor(s): James E. Kitchen, Alisa Miller and Laura Rowe

      The First World War is a subject that has fascinated the public as well as the academic community since the close of hostilities in 1918. Over the past thirty years in particular, the historiography associated with the conflict has expanded considerably to include studies whose emphases range between the economic, social, cultural, literary, and imperial aspects of the war, all coinciding with revisions to perceptions of its military context. Nevertheless, much of the discussion of the First World War remains confined to the experiences of a narrow collection of European armies on the battlefields of Northern France and Belgium.This volume seeks to push the focus away from the Western Front and to draw out the multi-spectral nature of the conflict, examining forgotten theatres and neglected experiences. The chapters explore the question of what ‘total war’ meant for the lives of people around the world implicated in this momentous event, broadening current debates on the First World War as well as developing, reinforcing, and refining the existing categories of analysis. The chapters are grouped into sections that reflect neglected elements of the transnational interpretation of the conflict and aspects of the total war debate. These encompass alternative forms of mobilisation, issues of neutrality, ideas of racial identity, and the scope of violence. The volume thus not only expands First World War studies but also contributes to the wider discourse on the shifting nature of warfare in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.With chapters by leading scholars and early career researchers, this volume draws on a diverse range of original archival research undertaken across disciplinary and national boundaries. The contributions to the volume provide an analysis of the conflict that draws out its full breadth and complexity. The First World War demonstrated the critically important relationship between national mobilisation and total war, and saw multiple mobilisations and re-mobilisations of European populations. This theme is explored at the national, regional, and local levels through examinations of the Sicilian province of Catania, the role of science in France and Britain, and the utilisation of the narrative of maritime heroism surrounding the British sailor Jack Cornwell. For Europe’s neutrals the First World War was often as total in its effects as for those states engaged in military operations. Chapters analyse the diverse range of these experiences of neutrality, from the economy and people of the Netherlands to the attitudes of Switzerland’s intellectuals. Racial interpretations of modern conflict have defined much of the historiography of total war. The complexities of racial analysis with respect to total war are highlighted in chapters dealing with white colonial internees in German East Africa, the treatment of prisoners of war in Europe, and the recruitment of India’s ‘primitive’ peoples for service in labour units. The final section of the volume considers the scale and broad scope of the violence unleashed during the First World War. Chapters on the continuation of German naval war culture after the conflict, the shaping of personal narratives of the war in the Ottoman Empire, and anti-alien violence among veterans in Canada serve to reinforce the extent to which the conflict affected wider aspects of twentieth-century history around the globe.Other Combatants, Other Fronts sheds light on the diverse experiences of neutral and belligerent states, and their combatants and civilians, during the tumultuous events of 1914-18. This brings to the fore the extent to which the mechanisms of conflict developed during the struggle had a truly global reach, and the impact this has had ever since in defining modern conflict. The collection reinforces the notion that although the First World War was a vast and often bewildering industrial conflict, it was ultimately a very human phenomenon.

    • History
      January 2016

      The First World War

      Analysis and Interpretation, Volume 2

      by Editor(s): Antonello Biagini, Giovanna Motta

      This volume is the result of an international conference held at Sapienza University of Rome in June 2014, which brought together scholars from different countries to re-analyse and re-interpret the events of the First World War, one hundred years after a young Bosnian Serb student from the “Mlada Bosna,” Gavrilo Princip, “lit the fuse” and ignited the conflict which was to forever change the world. The Great War – initially on a European and then on a world scale – demonstrated the fragility of the international system of the European balance of powers, and determined the dissolution of the great multinational empires and the need to redraw the map of Europe according to the principles of national sovereignty. This book provides new insights into theories of this conflict, and is characterized by internationality, interdisciplinarity and a combination of different research methods. The contributions, based on archival documents from various different countries, international and local historiography, and on the analysis of newspaper articles, postcards, propaganda material, memorials and school books, examine the role of intellectuals and artists in the conflict, the issue of minorities and nationalities, the economy, and international relations and politics, in addition to specific case studies such as Russia and the Ottoman Empire, the Caucasus and the Middle East.

    • First World War
      September 2014

      Endurance and the First World War

      Experiences and Legacies in New Zealand and Australia

      by Editor(s): David Monger, Sarah Murray, Katie Pickles

      Endurance was an inherent part of the First World War. The chapters in this collection explore the concept in New Zealand and Australia. Researchers from a range of backgrounds and disciplines address what it meant for New Zealanders and Australians to endure the First World War, and how the war endured through the Twentieth Century. Soldiers and civilians alike endured hardship, discomfort, fears and anxieties during the war. Officials and organisations faced unprecedented demands on their time and resources, while Maori, Australian Aborigines, Anglo-Indian New Zealanders and children sought their own ways to contribute and be acknowledged. Family-members in Australia and New Zealand endured uncertainty about their loved ones’ fates on distant shores. Once the war ended, different forms of endurance emerged as responses, memories, myths and memorials quickly took shape and influenced the ways in which New Zealanders and Australians understood the conflict.The collection is divided into the themes of Institutional Endurance, Home Front Endurance, Battlefield Endurance, Race and Endurance, and Memorials.

    • History: specific events & topics
      March 2016

      Living War, Thinking Peace (1914-1924)

      Women’s Experiences, Feminist Thought, and International Relations

      by Editor(s): Bruna Bianchi, Geraldine Ludbrook

      This volume is the result of a long commitment of the online journal DEP: Deportate, esuli, profughe to the themes of women pacifists’ thought and activism in the 1900s. The volume is a collection of contributions centred around three main themes. The first part, “Living War: Women’s Experiences during the War”, brings together first-hand accounts from women’s lives as they face the horrors of war, drawn mainly from original sources such as diaries, letters, memoirs and writings. The second, “Thinking Peace: Feminist Thought and Activism”, explores the lives and thought of several key women activists who challenged inequalities and sought to create new opportunities for women, contributing to the definition of a transnational culture of peace. The final section, “International Relations: Toward Future World Peace”, examines the work of a group of women who saw the outbreak of the First World War and the emergence of an international women’s movement for peace as an opportunity to act for their personal emancipation, and, in some cases, for a different idea of politics.The volume fills a notable gap in international history studies, providing a selection of contributions from little-known European contexts such as Italy, Poland, and Austria. The presence and contribution of African-American women, which has been neglected in the history of women’s pacifism, is also explored. Particular attention is given to the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom and to the International Congress of Women, held in The Hague in 1915.

    • Humour
      January 2016

      Laughter and War

      Humorous-Satirical Magazines in Britain, France, Germany and Russia 1914–1918

      by Author(s): Lesley Milne

      War is no laughing matter. During a war, however, laughter can play a vital role in sustaining morale, both in the armies at the Front and in their homelands. Among wars, the 1914–18 conflict has left a haunting legacy, and remains a central topic in modern European history. This book offers a comparative study of the impact of the war in four countries, and breaks new ground by exploring this through the medium of what their respective populations laughed at. By searching the pages of four humorous-satirical magazines, Punch in the UK, Le Rire (France), Simplicissimus (Germany), and Novy Satirikon (Russia), all of which supported the national war efforts, it examines the ways in which humour made an important contribution to the propaganda war.All four magazines were famous for their cartoons, a selection of which is included, but much of the humour was expressed through the written word, in skits, squibs, comic tales, and light verse. Translated into English, these snapshots of the moment are brought together to chart the responses on both sides of the conflict to issues and unfolding events, identifying the stories that nations liked to tell about themselves and also the ones they liked to be told.

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