• International relations
      January 2017

      Strategy in War and Peace

      A Critical Introduction

      by Aaron Edwards

      Discover how strategic theory can be used to navigate the complex and uncertain international security environment that we live in today. Strategy is a central concept in international security, and one that travels across the academic disciplines of politics, international relations and history. By why is it so important? Aaron Edwards unpacks key strategic episodes from world history and politics to help you understand the role of strategy and the scholarly and policy debates surrounding it. Themes covered include: International relations • technology • ethics • irregular war (including counter-insurgency, counter-terrorism and hybrid warfare) • the resurgence of great power rivalries in the early 21st century • the rise of non-state actors Case studies include: Guerrilla warfare and strategy in regions from South East Asia to the Middle East • US nuclear strategy in the Cold War • Russian intervention in Ukraine • British strategy at the end of empire • the UN's role in resolving conflict after the Cold War • US-led coalition strategy in Afghanistan • the challenge posed by Al Qaeda and Islamic State/Daesh ; Aaron Edwards unpacks key strategic episodes from world history and politics to help you understand the role of strategy and the scholarly and policy debates surrounding it: from counter-insurgency to the rise of non-state actors, and from the end of the British empire to Daesh/Islamic State. ; Preface; Acknowledgements; Contents; Introduction; 1. What is Strategy?; 2. Ends and Means in Strategy; 3. The Practical Application of Strategy; 4. Strategy, Ethics and Restraint in War; 5. Strategy and the Utility of Force; 6. The Role of Strategy in Ending Wars and Building Peace; 7. Strategy Redux?; Conclusion; Notes; Glossary; Bibliography. ; PrefaceAcknowledgementsIntroduction What is Strategy? Ends and Means in Strategy The Practical Application of Strategy Strategy, Ethics and Restraint in War Strategy and the Utility of Force The Role of Strategy in Ending Wars and Building Peace Strategy Redux? ConclusionNotesGlossaryBibliography

    • Political science & theory
      February 2012

      An Introduction to Political Thought

      A Conceptual Toolkit

      by Peri Roberts, Peter Sutch

      Your conceptual toolkit for the study of political thought. New for this edition Brand new chapter on international political thought, reflecting one of the most striking developments in contemporary political theory This textbook gives you all the vocabulary you need – political, conceptual and historical – to engage confidently and deeply with political thought and the moral and political worlds in which we live. It traces the history of political thought from Plato and Aristotle to Kymlicka and Rorty, following a unique dual structure that introduces key thinkers and core concepts together, making it suitable for any course structure. Topics covered include Universal moral order o liberty o political freedom o the state o socialism o utilitarianism o distributive justice o group politics o multiculturalism o international political theory o conservatism o feminism o postmodernism o global justice Thinkers covered include Plato o Aristotle o Hobbes o Locke o Rousseau o Marx o Bentham o Rawls o Nozick o Walzer o Kymlicka o Parekh o Pogge o Hume o Burke o Oakeshott o Rorty ; This textbook, now in itsa second edition, is designed to equip students with a basic 'conceptual toolkit' for the study of political thought: (i) a basic political vocabulary, (ii) a conceptual vocabulary and (iii) an historical vocabulary. ; [NB: there is a dual table of contents - one allowing the student to follow a chronological path (History of Political Thought), the other allowing a route to be traced through Political Concepts and Ideas]; History of Political Thought/ Political Concepts & Ideas; Introduction; 1: What is Political Theory?/ 1: What is Political Theory?; I: Classical Origins of Political Thought; 2: Plato/ 2: Is There a Universal Moral Order?; 3: Aristotle/ 3: Is Politics Natural?; II: Modern Developments in Political Thought; 4: Hobbes, Locke & Rousseau/ 4: Liberty & Human Nature: What is political freedom?; 5: Social Contractarians: Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau/ 5: Political Legitimacy & the Artificiality of Politics: Why obey the state?; 6: Marx & Socialism/ 6: The Artificiality of Man; III: Contemporary Understandings of Political Thought; 7: Bentham, Utilitarianism and Rights/ 7. How do we take people seriously?; 8: Rawls, Nozick & Walzer/ 8: Distributive Justice; IV: Challenges to Universalism and Foundationalism; 9. The Internationalisation of Political Thought/ 9. Universal Principles in a Society of States; 10. Burke and Oakeshott/ 10. Conservatism: Reason vs Tradition; 11: Feminism and Antifoundationalism/ 11: What's Wrong with Universal Justice?/; Afterword/ Current Engagements in Political Thought; Index.

    • History
      August 2016

      The Almoravid and Almohad Empires

      by Amira K. Bennison

      A comprehensive account of two of the most important empires in medieval North Africa. ; List of Figures; List of Abbreviations; Acknowledgements; Note on Transliteration; Chapter 1. Introduction; Chapter 2. The Almoravids: Striving in the path of God; Chapter 3. The Almohads: Revelation, revolution and empire; Chapter 4. Society in the Almoravid and Almohad eras, 1050-1250; Chapter 5. Economy and trade within and beyond imperial frontiers, 1050-1250; Chapter 6. Malikism, Mahdism and Mysticism: Religion and learning, 1050-1250; Chapter 7. ‘The most wondrous artifice’: Art and Architecture of the Berber empires; Chapter 8. Conclusion; Chronological Outline; List of Place Names in Latin and Arabic forms; Glossary of Arabic terms; Bibliography; Index.

    • History
      April 2016

      Astronomy and Astrology in the Islamic World

      by Stephen P. Blake

      It was the astronomers and mathematicians of the Islamic world who provided the theories and concepts that paved the way from the geocentric theories of Claudius Ptolemy in the second century AD to the heliocentric breakthroughs of Nicholas Copernicus and Johannes Kepler in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Algebra, the Arabic numeral system, and trigonometry: all these and more originated in the Muslim East and undergirded an increasingly accurate and sophisticated understanding of the movements of the Sun, Moon, and planets. This nontechnical overview of the Islamic advances in the heavenly sciences allows the general reader to appreciate (for the first time) the absolutely crucial role that Muslim scientists played in the overall development of astronomy and astrology in the Eurasian world. ; This textbook surveys the major advances in the heavenly sciences from Isfahan, Maragha and Samarqand. It looks at the development of astronomy and astrology in the Islamic world from the 9th to the 17th century, and their influence on the beliefs and practices of individuals and institutions in the Islamic world and Europe. ; List of Colour PLates; Preface; Chapter One: From Egypt to Islam; Chapter Two: Muhammad to the Seljuqs; Chapter Three: Observatory at Isfahan; Chapter Four: Astronomy and Astrology in Al-Andalus; Chapter Five: Observatory at Maragha; Chapter Six: Observatory at Samarqand; Chapter Seven: Observatory at Istanbul; Chapter Eight: Observatory at Shahjahanabad; Chapter Nine: Conclusion; Glossary; Select Bibliography; Index.

    • History
      March 2013

      The Written Word in the Medieval Arabic Lands

      A Social and Cultural History of Reading Practices

      by Konrad Hirschler

      Winner of the 2012 BRISMES book prize. Medieval Islamic societies belonged to the most bookish cultures of their period. Using a wide variety of documentary, narrative and normative sources, Konrad Hirschler explores the growth of reading audiences in a pre-print culture. The uses of the written word grew significantly in Egypt and Syria between the 11th and the 15th centuries, and more groups within society started to participate in individual and communal reading acts. New audiences in reading sessions, school curricula, increasing numbers of endowed libraries and the appearance of popular written literature all bear witness to the profound transformation of cultural practices and their social contexts. ; Using a wide variety of documentary, narrative and normative sources, Konrad Hirschler explores the growth of reading audiences in a pre-print culture in Egypt and Syria between the 11th and the 15th centuries. This detailed and wide-ranging analysis of the period, explores the key themes of literacy, orality and aurality. ; List of Illustrations; List of Tables; Acknowledgements; Introduction; 1. Reading and Writerly Culture; 2. A City is Reading: Popular and Scholarly Reading Sessions; 3. Learning to Read: Popularisation and the Written Word in Children’s Schools; 4. Local Endowed Libraries and their Readers; 5. Popular Reading Practices; Conclusion; Bibliography; Index.

    • Islam
      January 2017

      A History of Islam in Indonesia

      Unity in Diversity

      by Carool Kersten

      Located on the eastern periphery of the historical Muslim world, as a political entity Indonesia is barely a century old. Yet with close to a quarter of a billion followers of Islam it is now the largest and most populous Muslim country in the world. As the greatest political power in Southeast Asia, and a growing player on the world scene, Indonesia presents itself as a bridge country between Asia, the wider Muslim world and the West. In this survey Carool Kersten presents the Islamisation of Indonesia from the first evidence of the acceptance of Islam by indigenous peoples in the late thirteenth century until the present day. He provides comprehensive insight into the different roles played by Islam in Indonesia throughout history, including the importance of Indian Ocean networks for connecting Indonesians with the wider Islamic world, the religion’s role as a means of resistance and tool for nation building, and postcolonial attempts to forge an ‘Indonesian Islam’. ; In this survey Carool Kersten presents the Islamisation of Indonesia from the first evidence of the acceptance of Islam by indigenous peoples in the late thirteenth century until the present day. ; Acknowledgements; A note on translation and transliteration; Glossary; Introduction; 1. The Arrival of Islam; 2. Network Islam; 3. Islam as Resistance; 4. Islam and Nation-building; 5. An Indonesian Islam?; Conclusion; Endnotes; Bibliography; Index. ; Acknowledgements A note on translation and transliteration Glossary Introduction 1. The arrival of Islam 2. Network Islam 3. Islam as resistance 4. Islam and nation-building 5. An Indonesian Islam? Conclusion Endnotes Bibliography Index

    • History
      February 2015

      Reforging a Forgotten History

      Iraq and the Assyrians in the Twentieth Century

      by Sargon Donabed

      Who are the Assyrians and what role did they play in shaping modern Iraq? Were they simply bystanders, victims of collateral damage who played a passive role in the history of Iraq? And how have they negotiated their position throughout various periods of Iraq's state-building processes? This book details the narrative and history of Iraq in the 20th century and reinserts the Assyrian experience as an integral part of Iraq's broader contemporary historiography. It is the first comprehensive account to contextualize this native people's experience alongside the developmental processes of the modern Iraqi state. Using primary and secondary data, this book offers a nuanced exploration of the dynamics that have affected and determined the trajectory of the Assyrians' experience in 20th century Iraq. ; Traces the dynamic history of Iraq in the 20th century and reinserts the modern remnants of these peoples into its day-to-day concerns. ; Table of Contents; List of Figures; List of Tables; Acknowledgments; Abbreviations; Introduction; The Assyrians; A New Approach to Meaning; Moving Forward with Purpose; Chapter Analysis; 1. Integrating the Assyrian Question; A Historiography of Historiography and a Theoretical Framework; Key Sources: Mapping Iraqi Assyrians and Sectarianisation; 2. Framing the Assyrian Narrative: Late 19th and Early 20th Century; Assyrian Demography: Between Deteriorating Empires and Colonial Expansion; Modern Roots of Inter-Religious Animosity; World War 1; From Versailles 1919 to Lausanne 1923; The Period of the Iraq Levies and the Assyrian Settlement; 3. Iraq: Buildin a 'Nation'-State; The Patriarch and Temporal Authority; The Massacre at Simele; International Recognition; Road to the Republic; 4. The Birth of the Republic and an Autonomist Struggle; The 1958 Coup and Renewed Internal Strife; Ṣoriya Massacre of 1969; Demographic Situation; 5. Enduring Discord: Political Machinations and Border Clearings; A Resumption of Violence; The Border Clearings of 1977 -- 1978; 6. New Movements and War on the Horizon; Iraq-Iran War; The Calm Before the Storm; Renewed International Interest in Iraq: The Anfal Campaign; 7. Nation-State Formation, Nation-State Building and Contentious Pluralism; Situating the Assyrian Experience; Agency, Failed Strategies and Transdenominationalism; Simele Revisited; Development and Further Consequences of Urbanisation and Arabisation; State-Sponsored Acculturation; Conclusion; Glossary; Appendix A: Village Data; Appendix B: Bibliography; Appendix C: Documents Concerning Cultural and Political Organisations.

    • History of other lands
      April 2014

      Courts and Elites in the Hellenistic Empires

      The Near East After the Achaemenids, c. 330 to 30 BCE

      by Rolf Strootman

      Rolf Strootman brings together various aspects of court culture in the Macedonian empires of the post-Achaemenid Near East. During the Hellenistic Period (c. 330-30 BCE), Alexander the Great and his successors reshaped their Persian and Greco-Macedonian legacies to create a new kind of rulership that was neither ‘western’ nor ‘eastern’ and would profoundly influence the later development of court culture and monarchy in both the Roman West and Iranian East. Drawing on the socio-political models of Norbert Elias and Charles Tilly, After the Achaemenids shows how the Hellenistic dynastic courts were instrumental in the integration of local elites in the empires, and the (re)distribution of power, wealth, and status. It analyses the competition among courtiers for royal favour and the, not always successful, attempts of the Hellenistic rulers to use these struggles to their own advantage. It demonstrates the interrelationships of the three competing ‘Hellenistic’ empires of the Seleukids, Antigonids and Ptolemies, casts new light on the phenomenon of Hellenistic Kingship by approaching it from the angle of the court and covers topics such as palace architecture, royal women, court ceremonial, and coronation ritual. ; Rolf Strootman brings together various aspects of court culture in the Macedonian empires of the post-Achaemenid Near East. ; Acknowledgments; List of Illustrations; Abbreviations; Introduction: Court and empire in the Hellenistic Near East; PART I: SETTING THE STAGE; 1. The court as an instrument of power; 2. The theater of royalty; 3. The royal palace: A stage for royal rituals; PART II: THE COURT AS A SOCIO-POLITICAL SYSTEM; 4. The royal household; 5. Court society; 6. Royal pages; 7. Social dynamics; 8. Hierarchy and conflict; PART III: CEREMONIAL AND RITUAL; 9. Ceremonial and protocol; 10. Death and resurrection: Inauguration ritual; 11. The royal entry; 12. Royal processions: Enacting the myth of empire; Conclusion; Bibliography; The Macedonian dynasties.

    • Philosophy: metaphysics & ontology
      May 2015

      Deleuze and Guattari's A Thousand Plateaus

      A Critical Introduction and Guide

      by Brent Adkins

      The sheer volume and complexity of Deleuze and Guattari's A Thousand Plateaus can be daunting. What is an assemblage? What is a rhizome? What is a war machine? What is a body without organs? What is becoming-animal? Using clear language and numerous examples, each chapter of this guide analyses an individual plateau and examines the tendencies toward both stasis and change for each assemblage found there – be it social, political, psychological, musical, biological or linguistic. ; Using clear language and numerous examples, each chapter of this guide analyses an individual plateau from Deleuze and Guattari's A Thousand Plateaus, interpreting the work for students and scholars. ; Acknowledgments; Introduction: A Perceptual Semiotics; 1. Rhizome; 2. 1914: One or Several Wolves?; 3. 10,000 B.C.: The Geology of Morals; 4. November 20, 1923: Postulates of Linguistics; 5. 587 B.C. – A.D. 70: On Several Regimes of Signs; 6. November 28, 1947: How Do You Make Yourself a Body Without Organs?; 7. Year Zero: Faciality; 8. 1874: Three Novellas, or ‘What Happened?’; 9. 1933: Micropolitics and Segmentarity; 10. 1730: Becoming-Intense, Becoming-Animal, Becoming-Imperceptible…; 11. 1837: Of the Refrain; 12. 1227: Treatise on Nomadology – The War Machine; 13. 7000 B.C.: Apparatus of Capture; 14. 1440: The Smooth and the Striated; Conclusion: The Ethics of Becoming; Suggestions for Further Reading; Bibliography.

    • Philosophy: metaphysics & ontology
      September 2016

      Romantic Realities

      Speculative Realism and British Romanticism

      by Evan Gottlieb

      Speculative realism is one of the most exciting, influential and controversial new branches of philosophy to emerge in recent years. Now, Evan Gottlieb shows that the speculative realism movement bears striking a resemblance to the ideas and beliefs of the best-known British poets of the Romantic era. Romantic Realities analyses the parallels and echoes between the ideas of the most influential contemporary practitioners of speculative realism and the poetry and poetics of the most innovative Romantic poets. In doing so, it introduces you to the intellectual precedents and contemporary stakes of speculative realism, together with new understandings of the philosophical underpinnings and far-reaching insights of British Romanticism. Readings include: The poetry and poetics of Wordsworth in relation to Graham Harman’s object-oriented ontology and Timothy Morton’s dark ecology Coleridge’s poems and ideas in relation to Ray Brassier’s philosophical nihilism and Iain Hamilton Grant’s revisionist readings of Schelling Shelley’s oeuvre in relation to Quentin Meillassoux’s radical immanentism and Manuel DeLanda’s process ontology Byron’s best-known poems in relation to Alain Badiou’s truth procedures and Bruno Latour’s actor-network-theory Keats’ oeuvre in relation to Levi Bryant’s onticology and Ian Bogost’s alien phenomenology ; Romantic Realities analyses the parallels and echoes between the ideas of the most influential contemporary practitioners of speculative realism and the poetry and poetics of the most innovative Romantic poets. ; Acknowledgments; Introduction; 1: Wordsworth and Object-Oriented Philosophy; 2: Coleridge, Nature-Philosophy, and Process Ontology; 3: Byron, Actor-Network Theory, and Truth Procedures; 4: Shelley, Nihilism, and Speculative Materialism; 5: Keats, Vital Materialism, and Flat Ontology; Conclusion. ; Acknowledgments Series Editor’s Preface Introduction 1. Wordsworth and Object-Oriented Philosophy 2. Coleridge, Nature-Philosophy and Process Ontology 3. Byron, Actor-Network-Theory and Truth Procedures 4. Shelley, Nihilism and Speculative Materialism 5. Keats, Vital Materialism and Flat Ontology Conclusion Index

    • Islam
      September 2016

      Islamic Reform in Twentieth-Century Africa

      by Roman Loimeier

      Based on twelve case studies (Senegal, Mali, Nigeria, Niger, Chad, Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Zanzibar and the Comoros), this book looks at patterns and peculiarities of different traditions of Islamic reform. Considering both Sufi- and Salafi-oriented movements in their respective historical contexts, it stresses the importance of the local context to explain the different trajectories of development. The book studies the social, religious and political impact of these reform movements in both historical and contemporary times and asks why some have become successful as popular mass movements, while others failed to attract substantial audiences. It also considers jihad-minded movements in contemporary Mali, northern Nigeria and Somalia and looks at modes of transnational entanglement of movements of reform. Against the background of a general inquiry into what constitutes ‘reform’, the text responds to the question of what ‘reform’ actually means for Muslims in contemporary Africa. ; Based on twelve case studies (Senegal, Mali, Nigeria, Niger, Chad, Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Zanzibar and the Comoros), this book looks at patterns and peculiarities of different traditions of Islamic reform. ; Glossary of Arabic terms; Foreword; A Note on Islamic Transnational Organisations; 1. Introduction: The Context of Reform; 2. What is Reform?; 3. Reform in Context I: Senegal (and Mali); 4. Reform in Context II: Northern Nigeria (and Niger); 5. Reform in Context III: Chad, Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia; 6. Reform in Context IV: Tanzania (and Kenya); 7. Reform in Context V: Zanzibar (and the Comoros); 8. Conclusion: The meaning of Islamic Reform; Bibliography; Index.

    • History of other lands
      March 2017

      ReOrienting the Sasanians

      East Iran in Late Antiquity

      by Khodadad Rezakhani

      Central Asia is commonly imagined as the marginal land on the periphery of Chinese and Middle Eastern civilisations. At best, it is understood as a series of disconnected areas that served as stop-overs along the Silk Road. However, in the mediaeval period, this region rose to prominence and importance as one of the centres of Persian-Islamic culture, from the Seljuks to the Mongols and Timur. Khodadad Rezakhani tells the back story of this rise to prominence, the story of the famed Kushans and mysterious ‘Asian Huns’, and their role in shaping both the Sasanian Empire and the rest of the Middle East. Contextualises Persian history in relation to the history of Central Asia Extends the concept of late antiquity further east than is usually done Surveys the history of Iran and Central Asia between 200 and 800 CE and contextualises the rise of Islam in both regions ; In the mediaeval period, Central Asia rose to prominence as a centre of Persian-Islamic culture, from the Seljuks to the Mongols. Khodadad Rezakhani tells the back story of this rise to prominence, the story of the famed Kushans and mysterious ‘Asian Huns’, and their role in shaping both the Sasanian Empire and the rest of the Middle East. ; List of Illustrations; Acknowledgements; Series Editor's Preface; Maps; Preface; Introduction; Chapter I: Sasanians and the Sistanis; Chapter 2. Kushans and the Sasanians; Chapter 3. Kushano-Sasanians in East Iran; Chapter 4. The Iranian Huns and the Kidarites; Chapter 5. The Alkhans in the Southern Hindu Kush; Chapter 6. The Hepthalite 'Empire' and its Successors; Chapter 7. Sogdiana in the Kidardite and Hepthalite Periods; Chapter 8. The Ne¯zak and Turk Periods; Chapter 9. Tokharestan and Sogdiana in the Late Sasanian Period; General Conclusions and Postscript; Epilogue and Excursus on the Shahnameh; Bibliography; Index.

    • Middle Eastern history
      June 2017

      The Arab World and Western Intelligence

      Analysing the Middle East, 1956-1981

      by Dina Rezk

      This book addresses a critical question embedded within a heated debate about American intelligence after 9/11: have Western experts failed in some fundamental way to understand the dynamics, leaders and culture of the Middle East? Using the most recently declassified documents, interviews and Arabic sources, the book examines seminal case studies culminating in Sadat’s dramatic assassination and explores how the most knowledgeable and powerful intelligence agencies in the world have been so notoriously caught off guard in this region. ; Have Western intelligence experts fundamentally failed to understand the dynamics, leaders and culture of the Middle East? Using the most recently declassified documents, interviews and Arabic sources, the book examines seminal case studies to explore how the intelligence agencies in the world have been so notoriously caught off-guard. ; Introduction; 1. Orientalism and Analysis; 2. Formation of the United Arab Republic; 3. Revolution in Iraq; 4. Syrian Secession; 5. Yemeni Civil War; 6. The Six-Day War; 7. The War of Attrition; 8. First Impressions of Sadat; 9. The Yom Kippur War; 10. The Aftermath of Victory; Conclusion. ; Introduction Orientalism and Analysis Formation of the United Arab Republic Revolution in Iraq Syrian Secession Yemeni Civil War The Six-Day War The War of Attrition First Impressions of Sadat The Yom Kippur War The Aftermath of Victory Conclusion

    • Islam
      June 2016

      Islamic Thought in China

      Sino-Muslim Intellectual Evolution from the 17th to the 21st Century

      by Jonathan N Lipman

      How can people belong simultaneously to two cultures, originating in two different places and expressed in two different languages, without alienating themselves from either? Muslims have lived in the Chinese culture area for 1400 years, and the intellectuals among them have long wrestled with this problem. Unlike Persian, Turkish, Urdu, or Malay, the Chinese language never adopted vocabulary from Arabic to enable a precise understanding of Islam’s religious and philosophical foundations. Islam thus had to be translated into Chinese, which lacks words and arguments to justify monotheism, exclusivity, and other features of this Middle Eastern religion. Even in the 21st century, Muslims who are culturally Chinese must still justify their devotion to a single God, avoidance of pork, and their communities’ distinctiveness, among other things, to sceptical non-Muslim neighbours and an increasingly intrusive state. The essays in this collection narrate the continuing translations and adaptations of Islam and Muslims in Chinese culture and society through the writings of Sino-Muslim intellectuals. Progressing chronologically and interlocking thematically, they help the reader develop a coherent understanding of the intellectual issues at stake. ; The essays in this volume tell the stories of Chinese Muslim intellectuals trying to create satisfying, safe and coherent lives at the intersection of two potentially conflicting cultures. ; Editor’s Introduction: Four Centuries of Islamic Thought in Chinese; Jonathan Lipman; Part I: The Qing Empire (1636-1912); Chapter 1. A Proper Place for God: Ma Zhu’s Chinese Islamic Cosmogenesis, Jonathan Lipman; Chapter 2. Liu Zhi: The Great Integrator of Chinese Islamic Thought, James D. Frankel; Chapter 3. Tianfang Sanzijing: Exchanges and Changes in China’s Reception of Islamic Law, Roberta Tontini; Chapter 4. The Multiple Meanings of Pilgrimage in Sino-Islamic Thought, Kristian Petersen; Part II: Modern China; Chapter 5. Ethnicity or Religion? Republican-Era Chinese Debates on Islam and Muslims, Wlodzimierz Cieciura; Chapter 6. Selective Learning from the Middle East: The Case of Sino-Muslim Students at al-Azhar University, Yufeng Mao; Chapter 7. Secularization and Modernization of Islam in China: Educational Reform, Japanese Occupation, and the Disappearance of Persian Learning, Masumi Matsumoto; Chapter 8. Between ‘Abd al-Wahhab and Liu Zhi: Chinese Muslim Intellectuals at the Turn of the 21st Century, Leila Chérif-Chebbi; Bibliography; Glossary of East Asian Names; Glossary of East Asian Terms; List of Contributors.

    • History of other lands
      June 2017

      Sasanian Persia

      Between Rome and the Steppes of Eurasia

      by Eberhard W. Sauer

      The Sasanian Empire (third-seventh centuries) was one of the largest empires of antiquity, stretching from Mesopotamia to modern Pakistan and from Central Asia to the Arabian Peninsula. This mega-empire withstood powerful opponents in the steppe and expanded further in Late Antiquity, whilst the Roman world shrunk in size. Recent research has revealed the reasons for this success, notably population growth in some key territories, economic prosperity and urban development, made possible through investment in agriculture and military infrastructure on a scale unparalleled in the late antique world. Our volume explores the empire’s relations with its neighbours and key phenomena which contributed to its wealth and power, from the empire’s armed forces to agriculture, trade and treatment of minorities. The latest discoveries, notably major urban foundations, fortifications and irrigations systems, feature prominently. An empire whose military might and urban culture rivalled Rome and foreshadowed the caliphate will be of interest to scholars of the Roman and Islamic world. ; The Sasanian Empire was one of the largest empires of antiquity, stretching from Mesopotamia to modern Pakistan. This book explores key phenomena which contributed to its wealth and power, from the empire’s armed forces to agriculture, trade and treatment of minorities. The latest discoveries feature prominently. ; List of Illustrations; Acknowledgements; Notes on Contributors; Series Editor’s Foreword; Introduction, Eberhard W. Sauer; Sasanian cities: archaeological perspectives on the urban economy and built environment of an empire, St John Simpson; Palaeoecological insights into agri-horti-cultural and pastoral practices before, during and after the Sasanian Empire, Lyudmila Shumilovskikh, Morteza Djamali, Valérie Andrieu-Ponel, Philippe Ponel, Jacques-Louis de Beaulieu, Abdolmajid Naderi-Beni and Eberhard W. Sauer; Animal exploitation and subsistence on the borders of the Sasanian Empire: from the Gorgan Wall (Iran) to the Gates of the Alans (Georgia); Marjan Mashkour, Roya Khazaeli, Homa Fathi, Sarieh Amiri, Delphine Decruyenaere, Azadeh Mohaseb, Hossein Davoudi, Shiva Sheikhi and Eberhard W. Sauer; The Northern and Western Borderlands of the Sasanian Empire: Contextualizing the Roman/Byzantine and Sasanian Frontier, Dan Lawrence and Tony J. Wilkinson; Connectivity on a Sasanian frontier: Route systems in the Gorgan Plain of north-east Iran, Kristen Hopper; The Sasanian Empire and the East: A summary of the evidence and its implications for Rome, Warwick Ball; Minority Religions in the Sasanian Empire: Suppression, Integration, and Relations with Rome, Lee E. Patterson; A Contested Jurisdiction: Armenia in Late Antiquity, Tim Greenwood; Cultural contacts between Rome and Persia at the time of Ardashir I (AD 224-240), Pierfrancesco Callieri; Innovation and Stagnation: Military Infrastructure and the Shifting Balance of Power between Rome and Persia, Eberhard W. Sauer, Jebrael Nokandeh, Konstantin Pitskhelauri and Hamid Omrani Rekavandi; The Arabian Frontier: A Keystone of the Sasanian Empire, Craig Morley; The India Trade in Late Antiquity, James Howard-Johnston. ; Preliminaries: List of Illustrations, Acknowledgements, Notes on the Contributors, Series Editor’s Foreword1. Introduction Eberhard W. Sauer 2. Sasanian cities: archaeological perspectives on the urban economy and built environment of an empire St John Simpson 3. Palaeoecological insights into agri-horti-cultural and pastoral practices before, during and after the Sasanian Empire Lyudmila Shumilovskikh, Morteza Djamali, Valérie Andrieu-Ponel, Philippe Ponel, Jacques-Louis de Beaulieu, Abdolmajid Naderi-Beni and Eberhard W. Saue4. Animal exploitation and subsistence on the borders of the Sasanian Empire: from the Gorgan Wall (Iran) to the Gates of the Alans (Georgia) Marjan Mashkour, Roya Khazaeli, Homa Fathi, Sarieh Amiri, Delphine Decruyenaere, Azadeh Mohaseb, Hossein Davoudi, Shiva Sheikhi and Eberhard W. Sauer5. The Northern and Western Borderlands of the Sasanian Empire: Contextualizing the Roman/Byzantine and Sasanian Frontier Dan Lawrence and Tony J. Wilkinson 6. Connectivity on a Sasanian frontier: Route systems in the Gorgan Plain of north-east Iran Kristen Hopper 7. The Sasanian Empire and the East: A summary of the evidence and its implications for Rome Warwick Ball 8. Minority Religions in the Sasanian Empire: Suppression, Integration, and Relations with Rome Lee E. Patterson 9. A Contested Jurisdiction: Armenia in Late Antiquity Tim Greenwood 10. Cultural contacts between Rome and Persia at the time of Ardashir I (AD 224-240) Pierfrancesco Callieri 11. Innovation and Stagnation: Military Infrastructure and the Shifting Balance of Power between Rome and Persia Eberhard W. Sauer, Jebrael Nokandeh, Konstantin Pitskhelauri and Hamid Omrani Rekavandi12. The Arabian Frontier: A Keystone of the Sasanian Empire Craig Morley13. The India Trade in Late Antiquity James Howard-Johnston

    • History
      December 2016

      Islamic Law and Empire in Ottoman Cairo

      by James E. Baldwin

      What did Islamic law mean in the early modern period, a world of great Muslim empires? Often portrayed as the quintessential jurists’ law, to a large extent it was developed by scholars outside the purview of the state. However, for the Sultans of the Ottoman Empire, justice was the ultimate duty of the monarch, and Islamic law was a tool of legitimation and governance. James E. Baldwin examines how the interplay of these two conceptions of Islamic law – religious scholarship and royal justice – undergirded legal practice in Cairo, the largest and richest city in the Ottoman provinces. Through detailed studies of the various formal and informal dispute resolution institutions and practices that formed the fabric of law in Ottoman Cairo, his book contributes to key questions concerning the relationship between the shari‘a and political power, the plurality of Islamic legal practice, and the nature of centre-periphery relations in the Ottoman Empire. ; James E. Baldwin examines how the interplay of these two conceptions of Islamic law – religious scholarship and royal justice – undergirded legal practice in Cairo, the largest and richest city in the Ottoman provinces. ; Abbreviations; Abbreviations; Note on transliteration and dates; Introduction; 1. A Brief Portrait of Cairo under Ottoman Rule; 2. Cairo’s Legal System: Institutions and Actors; 3. Royal Justice: The Dīvān-i Hümāyūn and the Dīwān al-ʿĀlī; 4. Government Authority, the Interpretation of Fiqh, and the Production of Applied Law; 5. The Privatization of Justice: Dispute Resolution as a Domain of Political Competition; 6. A Culture of Disputing: How Did Cairenes Use the Legal System?; Conclusion: Ottoman Cairo’s legal system and grand narratives; Appendix: Examples of Documents Used in this Study; Notes; Map: Cairo in the Eighteenth Century; Glossary; Sources and Works Cited; Index. ; AbbreviationsAbbreviationsNote on transliteration and datesIntroduction1. A Brief Portrait of Cairo under Ottoman Rule2. Cairo’s Legal System: Institutions and Actors3. Royal Justice: The Dīvān-i Hümāyūn and the Dīwān al-ʿĀlī4. Government Authority, the Interpretation of Fiqh, and the Production of Applied Law5. The Privatization of Justice: Dispute Resolution as a Domain of Political Competition6. A Culture of Disputing: How Did Cairenes Use the Legal System?Conclusion: Ottoman Cairo’s legal system and grand narrativesAppendix: Examples of Documents Used in this StudyNotesMap: Cairo in the Eighteenth CenturyGlossarySources and Works CitedIndex

    • History
      January 2016

      The Jalayirids

      Dynastic State Formation in the Mongol Middle East

      by Patrick Wing

      This book traces the origins, history, and memory of the Jalayirid dynasty, a family that succeeded the Mongol Ilkhans in Iran and Iraq in the 14th and early 15th centuries. The story of how the Jalayirids came to power is illustrative of the political dynamics that shaped much of the Mongol and post-Mongol period in the Middle East. The Jalayirid sultans sought to preserve the social and political order of the Ilkhanate, while claiming that they were the rightful heirs to the rulership of that order. Central to the Jalayirids’ claims to the legacy of the Ilkhanate was their attempt to control the Ilkhanid heartland of Azarbayjan and its major city, Tabriz. Control of Azarbayjan meant control of a network of long-distance trade between China and the Latin West, which continued to be a source of economic prosperity through the 8th/14th century. Azarbayjan also represented the center of Ilkhanid court life, whether in the migration of the mobile court-camp of the ruler, or in the complexes of palatial, religious and civic buildings constructed around the city of Tabriz by members of the Ilkhanid royal family, as well as by members of the military and administrative elite. ; This book examines the rise and collapse of Mongol rule in Iran and Iraq, and its revival by a family of sultans who claimed to be the rightful heirs to the Mongol khans. The Jalayirids offers a glimpse at a long overlooked but critical period in the history of the Middle East in the late medieval period. ; Acknowledgements; Abbreviations for Primary and Secondary Source Texts; Chapter 1. Introduction and Sources for the History of the Jalayirids; Chapter 2. Tribes and the Chinggisid Empire; Chapter 3. The Jalayirs and the Early Ilkhanate; Chapter 4. From Tribal Amirs to Royal In-Laws; Chapter 5. Crisis and Transition (1335-1356); Chapter 6. Shaykh Uvays and the Jalayirid Dynasty; Chapter 7. Dynastic Ideology during the Reign of Shaykh Uvays; Chapter 8. Challenges to the Jalayirid Order; Chapter 9. Conclusions and the Legacy of the Jalayirids; Maps; Genealogy of the Jalayirid Dynasty; Bibliography; Index. ; AcknowledgementsAbbreviations for Primary and Secondary Source TextsChapter 1. Introduction and Sources for the History of the JalayiridsChapter 2. Tribes and the Chinggisid EmpireChapter 3. The Jalayirs and the Early IlkhanateChapter 4. From Tribal Amirs to Royal In-LawsChapter 5. Crisis and Transition (1335-1356)Chapter 6. Shaykh Uvays and the Jalayirid DynastyChapter 7. Dynastic Ideology during the Reign of Shaykh UvaysChapter 8. Challenges to the Jalayirid OrderChapter 9. Conclusions and the Legacy of the JalayiridsMapsGenealogy of the Jalayirid DynastyBibliographyIndex

    • History of the Americas
      February 2017

      American Imperialism

      The Territorial Expansion of the United States, 1783-2013

      by Adam Burns

      Provides a critical re-evaluation of US territorial expansionism and imperialism from 1783 to the present The United States has been described by many of its foreign and domestic critics as an “empire”. Providing a wide-ranging analysis of the United States as a territorial, imperial power from its foundation to the present day, this book explores the United States’ acquisition or long-term occupation of territories through a chronological perspective. It begins by exploring early continental expansion, such as the purchase of the Louisiana Territory from Napoleon Bonaparte in 1803, and traces US imperialism through to the controversial ongoing presence of US forces at Guantanamo Bay in Cuba. The book provides fresh insights into the history of US territorial expansion and imperialism, bringing together more well-known instances (such as the purchase of Alaska) with those less-frequently discussed (such as the acquisition of the Guano Islands after 1856). The volume considers key historical debates, controversies and turning points, providing a historiographically-grounded re-evaluation of US expansion from 1783 to the present day. Key Features Provides case studies of different examples of US territorial expansion/imperialism, and adds much-needed context to ongoing debates over US imperialism for students of both History and Politics Analyses many of the better known instances of US imperialism (for example, Cuba and the Philippines), while also considering often-overlooked examples such as the US Virgin Islands, American Samoa and Guam Explores American imperialism from a “territorial acquisition/long-term occupation” viewpoint which differentiates it from many other books that instead focus on informal and economic imperialism Discusses the presence of the US in key places such as Guantanamo Bay, the Panama Canal Zone and the Arctic ; Providing a wide-ranging analysis of the United States as a territorial, imperial power from its foundation to the present day, this book explores the United States’ acquisition or long-term occupation of territories through a chronological perspective. ; Introduction: Defining an Empire; 1. Atlantic to Pacific (1783–1893); 2. Heading Northwards (1812-1903); 3. Leaving the Continent (1817-1890); 4. A Two Ocean Empire (1890–1898); 5. Spanish Plunder (1898–1917); 6. An Empire Among Equals (1899–1917); 7. Occupation Over Annexation (1912-1973); 8. Continuing Imperialism (1940-2013); Conclusion; Bibliography.

    • History of the Americas
      January 2018

      Black Nationalism in American History

      From the Nineteenth Century to the Million Man March

      by Mark Newman

      Provides a concise up-to-date introduction to and overview of black nationalism in American history This analytical introduction assesses contrasting definitions of black nationalism in America, thereby providing an overview of its development and varied manifestations across two centuries. Its aim is to evaluate historiographical debates and synthesize a broad range of scholarship, much of it published since the beginning of the new millennium. However, unlike some of that work, this book offers a critical perspective that avoids advocacy or condemnation of black nationalism by examining major black nationalist thinkers, leaders and organizations as well as discussing some lesser-known groups and figures, the nature of black nationalism’s appeal and the position of women in and their contributions to black nationalism. Key Features Considers divergent definitions of black nationalism, providing an understanding of the nature of black nationalism Outlines historiography with an up-to-date assessment of key debates and leading scholarship Considers continuity, encouraging discussion of whether black nationalism was essentially unchanging or reflective of particular historical circumstances Looks beyond leading figures to understand how, why and when black nationalism gained support ; This analytical introduction assesses contrasting definitions of black nationalism in America, thereby providing an overview of its development and varied manifestations across two centuries. ; Chronology; 1. Black Nationalism before Marcus Garvey; 2. Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association; 3. The Nation of Islam and Malcolm X; 4. Black Nationalism, 1966-1970; 5. Black Nationalism, 1971-1995; Conclusion.

    • History
      May 2016

      Imagining the Arabs

      Arab Identity and the Rise of Islam

      by Peter Webb

      Who are the Arabs? When did people begin calling themselves Arabs? And what was the Arabs’ role in the rise of Islam? Investigating these core questions about Arab identity and history by marshalling the widest array of Arabic sources employed hitherto, and by closely interpreting the evidence with theories of identity and ethnicity, Imagining the Arabs proposes new answers to the riddle of Arab origins and fundamental reinterpretations of early Islamic history. This book reveals that the time-honoured stereotypes which depict Arabs as ancient Arabian Bedouin are entirely misleading because the essence of Arab identity was in fact devised by Muslims during the first centuries of Islam. Arab identity emerged and evolved as groups imagined new notions of community to suit the radically changing circumstances of life in the early Caliphate. The idea of ‘the Arab’ was a device which Muslims utilised to articulate their communal identity, to negotiate post-Conquest power relations, and to explain the rise of Islam. Over Islam’s first four centuries, political elites, genealogists, poetry collectors, historians and grammarians all participated in a vibrant process of imagining and re-imagining Arab identity and history, and the sum of their works established a powerful tradition that influences Middle Eastern communities to the present day. ; Investigating the core questions about Arab identity and history, this book tackles the time-honoured stereotypes that depict Arabs as ancient Arabian Bedouin, and reveals the stories to be a myth: tales told by Muslims to recreate the past to explain the meaning of Islam and its origins. ; Acknowledgements; Note on the Text; Introduction; Part 1: The Rise of Arab Communities; 1. The Rise of Arab Communities; I. Arabs and pre-Islamic Textual Traditions; II. Arabs in Arabia: ethnogenesis, interpretations and problems; III. An Arabness pretence: pre-Islamic ‘Arab’-cognates reconsidered; 2. Pre-Islamic ‘Arabless-ness’: Arabian Identities; I. The Arabic Language: a signpost to Arabness?; II. The search for Arabs in pre-Islamic poetry; III. Contextualising the ‘Arabless’ Poetry: ethnic boundaries in pre-Islamic Arabia; IV. The rise of ‘Arab’ poetry; V. Transition from ‘Maʿadd’ to ‘Arab’: case study of Dhū Qār; VI. Pre-Islamic Arabian identity: conclusions; 3. Arabness from the Qur’an to an ethnos; I. ‘Arab’: an ethnonym resurrected?; II. The Qur’an and Arabness; III. Early Islam and the genesis of Arab identity; Part Two: The Changing Faces of Arabness in Early Islam; 4. Interpreting Arabs: defining their name and constructing their family; I. ‘Arab’ defined; II. Arabness and contested lineage; III. Arab genealogy reconsidered: kinship, gender and identity; IV. The creation of ‘traditional’ Arab genealogy; V. Defining Arabs: conclusions; 5. Arabs as a people and Arabness as an idea: 750-900 CE; I. Arabs in the early Abbasid Caliphate (132-193/750-809); II. Forging an Iraqi ‘Arab Past’; III. al-Jāhiliyya and imagining pre-Islamic Arabs; IV. Arabs and Arabia: changing relationships in the third/ninth century; 6. Philologists, ‘Bedouinisation’ and the ‘Archetypal Arab’ after the mid-third/ninth century; I. Philologists and Arabness: changing conceptions of Arabic between the late second/eighth and fourth/tenth centuries; II. The transformation of Arabness into Bedouin-ness; III. Bedouin Arabness and the emergence of a Jāhiliyya archetype; IV. Conclusions; Imagining and Reimagining the Arabs: Conclusions; Bibliography.

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