• Teaching, Language & Reference
      December 2014

      Your Writing Well

      by Dr. Bob Davis

      Fifteen essays for anyone in any profession or academic level, Your Writing Well studies every aspect of the writing process, providing faster means to better products than do narrowly focused trade handbooks and academic texts. Having combed through writing pedagogy and cut through nonsense about composition and grammar, Dr. Davis provides an all-inclusive set of theory highlighting logic-based skills and practical strategies to create, develop, defend, and communicate coherently organized, well-expressed thoughts. Not marketed for dummies, Your Writing Well assumes readers have the smarts to follow mature common-sense guidance, grasp examples, and thus compensate for their existing lack of knowledge of what to do, how and why to do it, and where. Informed not by needless prohibitions but by relaxed, reassuring balances of freedom and prudent regulation, Your Writing Well is a comprehensive cure for all writers’ ailments and deficiencies.

    • Teaching, Language & Reference
      January 2019

      Konstruktionsgrammatik des Deutschen

      Ein sprachgebrauchsbezogener Ansatz

      by Klaus Welke

      Die prototypentheoretische und signifikativ-semantische (semasiologische) Orientierung der Konstruktionsgrammatik (KxG) durch George Lakoff und Adele Goldberg (Berkeley Cognitive Construction Grammar) wird am Beispiel des Deutschen in Richtung auf eine tätigkeitsbezogene (sprachgebrauchsbezogene) Grammatiktheorie ausgebaut, jenseits des Competence-Performance-Dualismus bisheriger Syntaxtheorien. Teil I entwirft eine konstruktionsgrammatische Beschreibung der Grammatik von Sätzen mit einfachen (nicht-komplexen) Prädikaten im Wechselverhältnis von Konstruktion und Projektion (Valenz) unter dem Primat der Konstruktion. Aus diesem Wechselverhältnis erklärt sich die Kreativität der SprecherInnen/HörerInnen beim Operieren mit Argumentkonstruktionen und die Produktivität syntaktischer Strukturen (Konstruktionen). Eingeschlossen ist die Beschreibung der Fusion von Modifikatorkonstruktionen und der Einbettung von Substantivkonstruktionen sowie eine konstruktionsgrammatische Interpretation der Variabilität von Wortfolgen. Im Teil II wird das deklarative Vererbungskonzept der KxG zu Gunsten eines sprachgebrauchsbezogenen Konzepts von Vererbung revidiert. Grammatiktheoretisch zentrale Phänomene wie Passivierung, Medialisierung, Nominalisierung und die Entstehung von Präpositionalobjekt-Konstruktionen und Partikel- und Präfixkonstruktionen werden auf dieser Grundlage als Konstruktionsvererbung erklärt.

    • Linguistics

      Y Treigladur

      [a Check-list of Welsh Mutations]

      by D. Geraint Lewis

    • Linguistics

      Pa Arddodiad?

      A Check-list of Verbal Prepositions

      by D. Geraint Lewis

    • Linguistics

      Gramadeg Cymraeg Cyfoes

      Contemporary Welsh Grammar

      by

      A new edition of an esential handbook for all who wish to acquaint themselves with the characteristics of Welsh language grammar. First published in 1976.

    • Language teaching & learning (other than ELT)

      Gafael Mewn Gramadeg

      by David A. Thorne

    • Grammar, syntax
      April 2015

      A Historical Syntax of English

      by Bettelou Los

      This book discusses a number of approaches to charting the major developments in the syntax of English, addressing key issues of interpretation and focus for the benefit of students of the topic. It does not assume any knowledge of Old or Middle English or of formal syntax, although students should be familiar with traditional syntactic concepts such as verbs and nouns, subjects and objects, and a general knowledge of linguistic concepts such as morphology or case.Drawing on explanations from both formal and functional approaches, Los explores how syntactic changes are the product of the interaction of many factors, external (the product of a certain sociolinguistic constellation of language or dialect contact) and internal (e.g. the loss of morphology, pressure from analogy).The book will strike a balance between theoretical explanation and accessibility to readers who have not had any training in formal syntax. ; This book discusses a number of approaches to charting the major developments in the syntax of English, addressing key issues of interpretation and focus for the benefit of students of the topic. ; List of figures and tables; List of abbreviations; Note on data references; Preface; 1: Introduction; 1.1: What is syntax?; 1.2: What is syntax for?; 1.3: Three dimensions of syntax; 1.3.1: Introduction; 1.3.2: Morphology or syntax?; 1.3.3: The expression of the semantic roles; 1.3.4: Word order variation; 1.4: Word order and meaning; 1.4.1: Introduction; 1.4.2: Pragmatics and information structure; 1.4.3: Discourse markers; 1.4.4: Discourse routines become syntax; 1.5: Interpreting historical data; 1.5.1: Introduction; 1.5.2: Sufficient data; 1.5.3: Genre and register; 1.5.4: Spoken versus written texts; 1.5.5: Dating texts; 1.5.6: The problem of negative evidence; 1.6: Summary of points; Exercises; Further reading; 2: Nominal categories: The loss of nominal morphology; 2.1: Introduction; 2.2: Derivation and inflection; 2.3: Inherent versus contextual inflection; 2.4: Number; 2.5: Gender; 2.6: Case; 2.7: The grammaticalisation of prepositions; 2.7.1: To; 2.7.2: Of; 2.8: The expression of definiteness; 2.9: Loss of morphology and word order change; 2.10: Modelling morpho-syntactic variation of case and prepositions; 2.11: Why is morphology lost?; 2.12: Which morphology is lost?; 2.13: Summary of points; Exercises; Further reading; 3: Verbal categories: The rise of the auxiliaries have and be; 3.1: Introduction; 3.2: Modality, tense, and aspect (TMA); 3.3: Lexical and grammatical aspect; 3.4: Alternative expressions for aspect; 3.4.1: Lexical items; 3.4.2: Prefixes and particles; 3.4.3: Positional verbs; 3.4.4: In or on; 3.4.5: Aspectualisers; 3.5: The perfect; 3.5.1: The development of the have+past participle perfect; 3.5.2: The development of the be+past participle perfect; 3.5.3: Competition between have- and be-perfects; 3.6: The development of the be+present participle progressives; 3.7: The passive; 3.8: Summary of points; Exercises; Further reading ; 4: Verbal categories: The rise of the modal auxiliaries; 4.1: Introduction ; 4.2: The NICE-properties in PDE; 4.2.1: Introduction; 4.2.2: Negation; 4.2.3: Inversion; 4.2.4: Code (or ellipsis); 4.2.5: Emphasis; 4.3: Modelling the NICE properties; 4.3.1: Introducing the IP; 4.3.2: Negation; 4.3.3: Negative contraction; 4.3.4: Inversion; 4.3.5: Code (or ellipsis); 4.3.6: Adverb placement; 4.4: NICE-properties in historical perspective; 4.4.1: Inversion: From V-to-I-to-C movement to I-to-C movement; 4.4.2: Negation; 4.4.3: Code (or ellipsis); 4.4.4: Emphasis; 4.4.5: Adverb placement; 4.4.6: Conclusions; 4.5: The verbal characteristics of auxiliaries ; 4.5.1: Introduction; 4.5.2: Agreement and tense; 4.5.3: Argument structure; 4.5.4: Concluding remarks; 4.6: The rise of do-support; 4.7: Ragged edges: be, do, have, dare, need and ought to; 4.8: Modelling the grammaticalisation of the modals; 4.9: Summary of points; Exercises; Further reading; 5: Complementation ; 5.1: Introduction; 5.2: Ragged edges: Usage and productivity; 5.2.1: Introduction; 5.2.2: Set; 5.2.3: Make; 5.2.4 Cause; 5.2.5: Conclusions; 5.3: The rise of the ing-form; 5.3.1: Introduction; 5.3.2: Origin of gerunds; 5.3.3: From nominalisations to gerunds; 5.3.4: The rise and spread of the gerund as verb complement; 5.3.5: The present participle/gerund nexus; 5.4:The rise of the to-infinitive; 5.4.1: Introduction; 5.4.2: Origin of to-infinitives; 5.4.3: Diagnostic tests for clausal status; 5.4.4: From adjunct to verb complement; 5.4.5: Stage I: Verbs of spatial manipulation; 5.4.6 Stage II: Verbs of firing up; 5.4.7: Stage III: Verbs of commanding and permitting; 5.4.8: Stage IV: Expressing ‘dependent desires’; 5.4.9: Stage V: Verbs of thinking and declaring; 5.5: Summary of points; Exercises; Further reading; 6: The structure of the clause; 6.1: Introduction; 6.2: The text; 6.3: The word order of the subclause ; 6.3.1: Introduction; 6.3.2: Identifying subclauses ; 6.3.3: Special positions for old information; 6.3.4: Extraposition; 6.3.5: And-clauses; 6.4: Modelling S-(A)-O-V; 6.4.1: Right-headed VP and IP; 6.4.2: Verb raising; 6.5: The change from OV to VO; 6.5.1: Postverbal objects; 6.5.2: Postverbal pronouns and particles; 6.5.3: Postverbal stranded prepositions; 6.5.4: Information structure as a diagnostic for change; 6.6: Summary of points; Exercises; Further reading; 7: Verb-Second; 7.1: Introduction; 7.2: Verb-movement to the second position; 7.3:Modelling movement to the second position; 7.4: Verb-movement to the third position; 7.5: The adverbs þa, þonne, þær and nu; 7.6: Modelling movement to the third position; 7.7: Early verbs in subclauses; 7.7.1: Introduction; 7.7.2: Main-clause-like subclauses; 7.7.3: Extraposition; 7.7.4: Verb projection raising; 7.7.5: Left-headed IP; 7.7.6: Conclusion; 7.8: Charting the decline of Verb-Second; 7.8.1: Introduction; 7.8.2: Interrogative and negative clauses; 7.8.3: Then, there, thus, so; 7.8.4: Stance adverbs; 7.8.5: Verbs of saying; 7.8.6: Nominal and pronominal subjects; 7.8.7: Discourse functions; 7.8.8: The elevated style; 7.8.9: The ‘late subject’ construction; 7.9: Causes of the decline; 7.9.1: Language-internal causes; 7.9.2: Language-external causes; 7.10: Summary of points; Exercises; Further reading; 8: Syntax and discourse; 8.1: Introduction; 8.2:Grounding, assertion and subordination ; 8.3: Foregrounding and peak marking; 8.4: Creating suspense; 8.4.1:The durative main clause+ oþ-clause pair; 8.4.2: Durative motion verbs, AcIs and Verb-First in Beowulf; 8.4.3: Durative onginnan/beginnan ‘begin’ and Verb-First in Ælfric; 8.5: Correlative linking; 8.5.1: Introduction; 8.5.2: Complement clauses; 8.5.3: Adverbial clauses; 8.5.4: Relative clauses; 8.6: From parataxis to hypotaxis; 8.7: V-to-C in þa-correlatives; 8.8: Summary of points; Exercises; Further reading

    • Linguistics
      November 2016

      A Critical Account of English Syntax

      Grammar, Meaning, Text

      by Keith Brown, Jim Miller

      Tackling the role of syntactic constructions in text, this companion brings out the connections between syntactic structures and semantics/pragmatics and the function of different clausal structures in written and spoken texts. It also draws attention to variation in standard written English, to the grammatical structures and discourse devices in spoken English, and to ongoing changes in English grammar. It focuses on the concepts of descriptive grammar as extended and refined over the last fifty years. Encyclopedic format gives immediate access the most relevant topicCross-referencing allows students to follow a thread and explore the interrelationships between syntactic structures Innovative structure of the volume enables lecturers to decide the order in which they wish to discuss topics and to prescribe reading This is a practical yet flexible reference that you can return to again and again, whether it be for learning, research or teaching. ; Tackling the role of syntactic constructions, this companion brings out the connections between syntactic structures and semantics/pragmatics and the function of clausal structures in written and spoken texts. This is a practical yet flexible reference that you can return to again and again, whether it be for learning, research or teaching. ; Introduction; Grammaticality; Adjectives and Adjective Phrases; Adverbs and Adverb Phrases; Adverbial Clauses; Clause and Text; Clause Structure; Clefts; Complement Clauses; Constructions; Non-Finite Clauses; Nouns and Noun Phrases; Prepositions and Prepositional Phrases; Relative Clauses; Sentences and Clauses; Verbs and Verb Phrases; Word Classes ; Introduction Grammaticality Adjectives and Adjective Phrases Adverbs and Adverb Phrases Adverbial Clauses Clause and Text Clause Structure Clefts Complement Clauses Constructions Non-Finite Clauses Nouns and Noun Phrases Prepositions and Prepositional Phrases Relative Clauses Sentences and Clauses Verbs and Verb Phrases Word Classes

    • Teaching, Language & Reference
      May 2013

      Positions and Interpretations

      German Adverbial Adjectives at the Syntax-Semantics Interface

      by Martin Schäfer

      The structural and semantic properties of adverbials represent a still poorly understood area of sentential syntax and semantics in Germanic languages. In particular, it is an open question which different adverbial usages need to be distinguished, which usages are tied to which syntactic positions, and how these different usage can be formally analyzed. Focussing on adverbial adjectives in German, this study provides detailed answers to these questions. By distinguishing between verb-related adverbials and event-related adverbials, the author provides a new analysis of the large class of adverbials traditionally labelled as manner adverbials. It is shown that the two different classes are linked to different syntactic positions, and formal analyses and derivations for the two different usages are developed. The book is therefore of interest not only to anyone working on the linguistics of German but also to all linguists working on the syntax-semantics interface and the formal analysis of adverbials.

    • Teaching, Language & Reference
      May 2013

      Classifier Structures in Mandarin Chinese

      by Niina Ning Zhang

      This monograph addresses fundamental syntactic issues of classifier constructions, based on a thorough study of a typical classifier language, Mandarin Chinese. It shows that the contrast between count and mass is not binary. Instead, there are two independently attested features: Numerability, the ability of a noun to combine with a numeral directly, and Delimitability, the ability of a noun to be modified by a delimitive modifier, such as size, shape, or boundary modifier. Although all nouns in Chinese are non-count nouns, there is still a mass/non-mass contrast, with mass nouns selected by individuating classifiers and non-mass nouns selected by individual classifiers. Some languages have the counterparts of Chinese individuating classifiers only, some languages have the counterparts of Chinese individual classifiers only, and some other languages have no counterpart of either individual or individuating classifiers of Chinese. The book also reports that unit plurality can be expressed by reduplicative classifiers in the language. Moreover, for the constituency of a numeral expression, an individual, individuating, or kind classifier combines with the noun first and then the numeral is integrated; but a partitive or collective classifier, like a measure word, combines with the numeral first, before the noun is integrated into the whole nominal structure. Furthermore, the book identifies the syntactic positions of various uses of classifiers in the language. A classifier is at a functional head position that has a dependency with a numeral, or a position that has a dependency with a generic or existential quantifier, or a position that represents the singular-plural contrast, or a position that licenses a delimitive modifier when the classifier occurs in a compound.

    • Teaching, Language & Reference
      October 2000

      Analogy, Levelling, Markedness

      Principles of Change in Phonology and Morphology

      by Aditi Lahiri

      TRENDS IN LINGUISTICS is a series of books that open new perspectives in our understanding of language. The series publishes state-of-the-art work on core areas of linguistics across theoretical frameworks as well as studies that provide new insights by building bridges to neighbouring fields such as neuroscience and cognitive science. TRENDS IN LINGUISTICS considers itself a forum for cutting-edge research based on solid empirical data on language in its various manifestations, including sign languages. It regards linguistic variation in its synchronic and diachronic dimensions as well as in its social contexts as important sources of insight for a better understanding of the design of linguistic systems and the ecology and evolution of language. TRENDS IN LINGUISTICS publishes monographs and outstanding dissertations as well as edited volumes, which provide the opportunity to address controversial topics from different empirical and theoretical viewpoints. High quality standards are ensured through anonymous reviewing.

    • Teaching, Language & Reference
      December 2000

      A Cognitive Approach to the Verb

      Morphological and Constructional Perspectivs

      by Hanne Gram Simonsen, Rolf Theil Endresen

    • Teaching, Language & Reference
      August 2002

      Genitive Variation in English

      Conceptual Factors in Synchronic and Diachronic Studies

      by Anette Rosenbach

      The future of English linguistics as envisaged by the editors of Topics in English Linguistics lies in empirical studies which integrate work in English linguistics into general and theoretical linguistics on the one hand, and comparative linguistics on the other. The TiEL series features volumes that present interesting new data and analyses, and above all fresh approaches that contribute to the overall aim of the series, which is to further outstanding research in English linguistics.

    • Teaching, Language & Reference
      September 1999

      Einführung in die Morphologie des Spanischen

      by Nikolaus Schpak-Dolt

      Das vorliegende Arbeitsheft soll Studierende der Romanistik/Hispanistik mit den Tatsachen und Problemen der spanischen Morphologie vertraut machen und ihnen ein solides Grundwissen vermitteln. Die Darstellung umfaßt drei Teile: I. Grundbegriffe, II. Flexion, III. Wortbildung; durchgängiger Leitgedanke ist die Konstituentenstruktur. Im ersten Teil werden morphologische Einheiten wie Morph, Morphem, Wort, Wurzel und Affix, Stamm und Endung usw. eingeführt. Im Zusammenhang damit wird die Methode der Konstituentenanalyse vorgestellt und an vielfältigem Beispielmaterial erläutert. Der zweite Teil ist der Flexion der Substantive, Adjektive, Pronomina und Verben gewidmet. Entsprechend ihrer Bedeutung wird der Verbflexion besonders viel Raum gegeben. Ausführlich besprochen werden unterschiedliche Vorstellungen vom Aufbau einer Verbform, die Struktur der Endung, Alternationen im Bereich des Themavokals und des Verbstamms. Im dritten Teil werden die Verfahren der Suffigierung, Präfigierung, Parasynthese und Komposition dargestellt und durch zahlreiche Beispiele illustriert. Bei der Suffigierung werden u.a. erörtert: Alternationen in der Derivationsbasis, Nullsuffigierung, evaluative und nicht-evaluative Suffigierung. Bei der Präfigierung steht die Definition des Präfixes und die Abgrenzung gegen die Komposition im Mittelpunkt. Bei der Komposition werden u.a. die Abgrenzung gegenüber der syntaktischen Fügung, die Verb-Substantiv-Komposita und die gelehrte Kombinatorik diskutiert.

    • Teaching, Language & Reference
      November 2000

      Morphologie / Morphology. 1. Halbband

      by Geert E. Booij, Christian Lehmann, Joachim Mugdan, Wolfgang Kesselheim, Stavros Skopeteas

      Morphologie wird traditionell als die Lehre von der Form der Wörter definiert. Das vorliegende Handbuch gibt Aufschluss über die Theorie der Morphologie sowie über morphologische Strukturen eines breiten Spektrums von Sprachen. Es hat zum Ziel, den heutigen Wissensstand der Morphologie auf allgemeinem Niveau umfassend darzustellen und an zahlreichen Beispielen zu illustrieren. Die gründliche Erläuterung etablierter Begriffe und gesicherter Erkenntnisse wird, wo notwendig, ergänzt um die unvoreingenommene Darstellung alternativer Problemlösungen.

    • Teaching, Language & Reference
      November 2004

      Morphologie / Morphology. 2. Halbband

      by Geert E. Booij, Christian Lehmann, Joachim Mugdan, Stavros Skopeteas, Wolfgang Kesselheim

      Morphologie wird traditionell als die Lehre von der Form der Wörter definiert. Das vorliegende Handbuch gibt Aufschluss über die Theorie der Morphologie sowie über morphologische Strukturen eines breiten Spektrums von Sprachen. Es hat zum Ziel, den heutigen Wissensstand der Morphologie auf allgemeinem Niveau umfassend darzustellen und an zahlreichen Beispielen zu illustrieren. Die gründliche Erläuterung etablierter Begriffe und gesicherter Erkenntnisse wird, wo notwendig, ergänzt um die unvoreingenommene Darstellung alternativer Problemlösungen.

    • Teaching, Language & Reference
      April 2014

      'COME' and 'GO' off the Beaten Grammaticalization Path

      by Maud Devos, Jenneke van der Wal

      TRENDS IN LINGUISTICS is a series of books that open new perspectives in our understanding of language. The series publishes state-of-the-art work on core areas of linguistics across theoretical frameworks as well as studies that provide new insights by building bridges to neighbouring fields such as neuroscience and cognitive science. TRENDS IN LINGUISTICS considers itself a forum for cutting-edge research based on solid empirical data on language in its various manifestations, including sign languages. It regards linguistic variation in its synchronic and diachronic dimensions as well as in its social contexts as important sources of insight for a better understanding of the design of linguistic systems and the ecology and evolution of language. TRENDS IN LINGUISTICS publishes monographs and outstanding dissertations as well as edited volumes, which provide the opportunity to address controversial topics from different empirical and theoretical viewpoints. High quality standards are ensured through anonymous reviewing.

    • Teaching, Language & Reference
      June 1992

      Das Adjektivkomposita und Partizipialbildungen

      (Komposita und kompositionsähnliche Strukturen 2)

      by Maria Pümpel-Mader, Elsbeth Gassner-Koch, Hans Wellmann, Lorelies Ortner

    • Teaching, Language & Reference
      November 1991

      Substantivkomposita

      (Komposita und kompositionsähnliche Strukturen 1)

      by Lorelies Ortner, Elgin Müller-Bollhagen, Hans Wellmann, Maria Pümpel-Mader, Hildegard Gärtner

    • Teaching, Language & Reference
      June 1978

      Das Adjektiv

      by Ingeborg Kühnhold, Oskar Putzer, Hans Wellmann

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