The purpose of this work is to broaden the scholarly dialogue in educational leadership and to address the changing role of the American school principal in the twenty-first century with regard to increasing diversity in the United States. This book seeks to provide theoretical and practical insight into the role of school principals dealing with an ever-increasing multicultural student population. We cover an array of issues that we believe are critical in order for the twenty-first century school principal to be effective and relevant. A primary inquiry that needs to be made is: Are school leaders taking seriously the increasing social and cultural diversity in their schools? It is the school principal who sets the tone for the school culture and who provides the vision as to the direction of the organization. We endeavor to help scholars and practitioners have a better understanding of the importance of the diversity of their students, and to give them the tools to appropriately lead schools in ways that ensure all students, regardless of their life circumstances and status, are provided a school climate that promotes high academic achievement and a sense of belonging.