This study analyzes the relationship between public opinion and Europe’s new security policy. It aims to explore current perceptions of European integration, security, and defense in EU member states. Its main focus is on a comparison of prevailing attitudes toward the idea of closer European cooperation in security policy with an emphasis on CFSP, ESDP, and the EU Rapid Reaction Force. It also sheds light on current perceptions of threat among the populations of European states. The analysis is based on a comparison of available empirical data from public opinion polls and country studies, including the results of the recently published Eurobarometer Survey 54.1.