This important volume takes stock of the Total Literacy Campaign (TLC), assessing both its successes and failures in order to draw lessons for the future. Based on detailed first-hand evaluations of the TLC in six districts located in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Jharkhand and Rajasthan, it adopts a fresh approach using in-depth interviews and Focus Group Discussions. The researchers discuss not only outcomes but also the processes and dynamics, both organizational and interpersonal, that either facilitated or hampered the teaching-learning situation. They take account of the differing social parameters and contextual factors in each of the districts studied to present richly textured accounts. The roles played by officials, volunteers, NGOs and the learners are also discussed, while giving voice to different perspectives including those of women and marginalized groups.