Plants are important components to the ecosystem. They are the base of the food chain and play a significant role in energy flow and biogeochemical cycling of nutrients between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. They must constantly fight against the environmental modifications, however, that threaten to cause global species extinction and habitat destruction. A new multidisciplinary science has evolved to deal with the crises confronting biological diversity. It has two goals: first, to investigate human impacts on biological diversity and second, to develop practical approaches to prevent extinction of species. This book is a practical update on our knowledge on monitoring, assessment and conservation of plant biodiversity in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and related fields. It includes a general overview of plant biodiversity, investigates a wealth of factors affecting and hindering plant biodiversity before exploring in depth methods of monitoring, assessing and conserving our plant species. Globally relevant, this book is a valuable resource for all researchers, professionals and students of botany and plant biodiversity studies.